Pater Gratia Oriental Art

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Sold Chine de commande 

 

Western Subjects 1680-1800

 

Mythological and Religious Subjects

 

Page 1

In the Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Western Subjects 1680-1800 - Mythological & Religious Subjects category the sold objects are categorized in the following alphabetical order: 

  • Mythological Subjects
  • Religious Subjects

 

Sold Mythological Subjects

 

2011474
2011474

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Westeren Subjects 1680-1800 - Mythological and Religious Subjects - Mythological Subjects - Page 1

 

Object 2011474

 

Milk jug 

 

China

 

c.1740

 

Height 88 mm (3.46 inch), diameter 74 mm (2.91 inch), diameter of mouthrim 35 mm (1.38 inch), diameter of footring: 35 mm (1.38 inch), weight 146 grams (5.15 ounce (oz.))

 

Milk jug on footring, a pear shaped body with handle, a small triangular spout at the rim. The base is glazed. The handle is placed opposite the spout. The rim is unglazed inside for a cover, now missing. Decorated in "en grisaille / encre de Chine" and gold  with a rare mythological scene, namely Zeus or Jupiter borne on a throne of billowing clouds above a landscape, his companion eagle at his side. Round the rim a formalized foliate scroll border.

 

Subjects from Greek and Roman mythology were prevalent and enjoyed great popularity, not least because it was such a good pretext to depict beautiful, half-naked women, disguised as goddesses or nymphs from classical antiquity. The fashion suddenly came into being around 1735, had its heyday in the middle of the century and faded away after the 1760's. As with the Chine de commande with religious themes, tea wares, plates and dishes with mythological designs are abundant while other dinner wares are lacking. Probably they were more appreciated as decorative items and to a lesser extent, useful as table wares. (Jörg 1989/2

 

A far more common design of Zeus on Chinese export porcelain is that after an engraving of Claude Audran III (1658-1734). It forms part of a series depicting various Olympian gods and goddesses, Les Douze Mois Grotesques, done by Audran for the Gobelins factory in 1708-09. 

 

For two examples, please see:

Another well known depiction on Chine de commande porcelain after the same series of engravings by Audran is that of Jupiters spouse Juno/Hera, please see my sold objects 20103752010628 and 2010901.

 

However, this particular design of Zeus is very rare and hardly documented. For two octagonal dishes with identical mythological scene, please see:

Interestingly, the border design of a golden band of fruit and flowers on these dishes is different from the one on this milk jug, although  both are clearly inspired by German Meissen porcelain. The elaborate and finely painted golden scrollwork decoration on the rim was common in the Meissen Porcelain Factory from 1720 until about 1740. It can also be found on a series of armorial dishes en grisaille and gold and plates with Chinoiserie designs based on Meissen originals. (Howard 1994, p.82), (Fuchs & Howard 2005, p.67

 

Condition: A firing flaw and a short hairline to the rim.

 

References:

Hervouët 1986, no. 13.1 & 13.2

Jörg 1989/2, p.160

London 1990, lot 220

Howard 1994, cat. 66

Litzenburg 2003, cat. 187/188

Fuchs & Howard 2005, cat. 29

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2010672
2010672

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Western Subjects 1680-1800 - Mythological and Religious Subjects - Mythological Subjects - Page 1

 

Object 2010672

 

Teapot stand

 

China

 

c.1750

 

Height 17 mm (0.67 inch), dimensions 120 mm (4.72 inch) x 133 mm (5.24 inch)

 

Hexagonal teapot stand or saucer dish with spreading upright sides, a deeply scalloped rim and a flat unglazed base with adhering kiln sand. Used as teapot or milk jug stand. Polychrome decorated in various overglaze enamels with a mythological subject. Acis and Galatea sitting under a tree being spied on by the jealous Sicilian Cyclops Polyphème sitting on a nearby rock.

 

In Ovid's Metamorphoses, Acis was the sprit of the Acis River in Sicily, beloved of the nereid, or sea-nymph, Galatea (she who is milk-white), daughther of Nereus and Doris. She returned his love, but a jealous rival, the Sicilian Cyclops Polyphemys, killed him with a boulder. Galatea then turned his blood into the Sicilian river Acis. (Wikipedia.org

 

As early as 1728 the Dutch East India Company, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC), "Dagh-registers" state that its ship "Coxhorn" that left Amsterdam in 1728 with destination China, returned to the Netherlands on June 13th 1730, fully loaded with tea and porcelain, among its cargo were, for instance, 810 tea pots, 251 pairs of small covered sugar-boxes and 600 pattipans. A pattipan was used to protect the surface of luxurious lacquer or painted tea tables, against the influence of a hot teapot or drops running from its spout. If, in certain circles, a special tea table was not at hand it served to protect the furniture or its valuable table-cloth from tea spots. The Dutch word "pattipan" is most likely derived from the English word "patty pan" meaning a pastry mould for little pies or pastries. These "patty pans" were very similar, in shape and size, to our "pattipannen". (Volker 1959), (Kleyn 1980, pp. 253-261)

 

For an identically decorated dish, please see:

Condition: A restored hole in the centre and chip to the rim.

 

References:

Honey 1944, Plate 139

Volker 1959

Kleyn 1980, pp.253-261

Hervouët 1986, cat. 13.64b

 

Price: Sold.

 

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The designs below derived from a series of prints by Claude III Audran (1658-1734) representing the months of the year. Engravings from this series were also used for decorating Chine de commande objects as can be seen on the following objects.  

 

Suite de douze tapisseries d'epoque Louis XV 'Les douze mois Grotesques' manufacture de gobelins, vers 1726 d'apre les dessins de Claude Audran Le Jeaune, Antoine Watteau et Alex Francois Desportes (source: christies.com) (not included in this sale)

2010375
2010375

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Western Subjects 1680-1800 - Mythological and Religious Subjects - Mythological Subjects - Page 1

 

Object 2010375

 

Teacup and saucer

 

China

 

1750-1760

 

Height of teacup 39 mm (1.54 inch), diameter of rim 79 mm (3.11 inch), diameter of footring 39 mm (1.54 inch)

Height of saucer 22 mm (0.87 inch), diameter of rim 121 mm (4.76 inch), diameter of footring 75 mm (2.95 inch)

 

Teacup and saucer on footrings, slightly everted rims. Decorated in encre de Chine and gold with a central scene of a crowned figure seated on a cloud beside a peacock, holding a scepter and wreath. On the rim a border of peacocks and panels edged in strapwork, floral festoons and foliate-scrolls after an early 18th century laub- und bandelwerk Viennese design; the teacup is similarly decorated with the same scene on the bottom..

 

The Greek goddess Hera called the Queen of Heaven, was a powerful queen in her own right, long before her marriage to Zeus, the mighty king of the Olympian gods. The goddess Hera ruled over the heavens and the earth, responsible for every aspect of existence, including the seasons and the weather. She was also worshipped as the Roman goddess Juno wife of Jupiter, the month June is named in her honour. It is partly on account of Hera's great beauty, and particularly her beautiful. large eyes, that she is linked to the peacock with it's iridescent feathers having "eyes". The peacock symbolizes her luxury, beauty and immortality. The goddess Hera blessed and protected a woman's marriage, bringing her fertility, protecting her children, and helping her find financial security. Hera was, in short, a complete woman, overseeing both private and public affairs. (goddessgift.com)

 

The source of the design is an engraving by Claude Audran III (1658-1734) as part of a series in which various Olympian gods and goddesses depict the months of the year, Hera/Juno symbolizes June. (Hervouët 1986, p.296), (Litzenburg 2003, p.190)

 

In 1722 Père d'Entrecolles reported that the Chinese were experimenting with painting in black, so far unsuccessfully. Black or schwarzlot, decoration, was also then just being developed in Europe, and in fact the German Hausmaler was putting it primarily on Chinese imported in the white, rather than on wares from the newly established Meissen factory. It must have been these hybrids that were sent back to Canton for imitation at the time of Père d'Entrecolle's letter, but the perfection of the technique and its translation into commercial export porcelain came only later, under the direct influence of the Du Paquier period (1719-1744). Unique to the Viennese Du Paquier porcelain factory was the laub- und bandelwerk border, based on two series of engravings by Paul Decker (d.1713). Continually modified and varied its essential elements were strapwork, palmettes, trelliswork cartouches, and foliate scrolls combined into a rhythmical pattern of baroque formality. Other China trade versions of the laub- und bandelwerk border, such as the more usual one with the addition of peacock and with panels of quilting rather than trellis- or scale work, are farther removed from their Viennese factory prototypes, and are perhaps derived from Hausmaler variants. (Corbeiller 1974, pp.68-69)

 

For identically decorated objects, please see:

Condition:

Teacup: Perfect.

Saucer: A frit and two hairlines to the rim.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1968, cat. 294

Corbeiller 1974, cat. 30

Gordon 1977, cat. 48

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1977, cat. 199

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1989, cat. 215

London 1990, lot 233 & 235

London 2002, lot 470

Litzenburg 2003, cat. 188

 

Price: Sold.

 

More pictures >>

More pictures of object 2010376 an identically decorated, sold teacup >>

More pictures of object 2010883 an identically decorated, sold sugar bowl >>

More pictures of object 2010628 an identically decorated, sold, spoon or leak tray >>

More pictures of object 2010901 an identically decorated, sold coffee cup >>

More pictures of object 2010422B an identically decorated, sold coffee cup >>

More pictures of objects 2011136ABC, three identically shaped, sized and decorated, sold saucers >>

2010490
2010490

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Western Subjects 1680-1800 - Mythological and Religious Subjects - Mythological Subjects - Page 1

 

Object 2010490

 

Teacup

 

China

 

1740-1750

 

Height 40 mm (1.58 inch), diameter of rim 70 mm (2.76 inch), diameter of footring 31 mm (1.22 inch)

 

Teacup on a footring. Decorated in encre de Chine and gold with on the rim laub- und bandelwerk border. On the bottom the Roman goddess of love Venus sitting on the foam of the sea with her winged boy/son Amor or Cupid who is holding a gold-headed arrow.

 

The design is part of a series of the months of the year engraved by Claude III Audran (1658-1734), Venus symbolizes April. Amor or Cupid is often depicted as carrying two sets of arrows: one set gold-headed, which inspire love; and the other lead-headed, which inspire hatred. (Hervouët 1986, p.296)

 

In 1722 Père d'Entrecolles reported that the Chinese were experimenting with painting in black, so far unsuccessfully. Black or schwarzlot, decoration, was also then just being developed in Europe, and in fact the German Hausmaler was putting it primarily on Chinese imported in the white, rather than on wares from the newly established Meissen factory. It must have been these hybrids that were sent back to Canton for imitation at the time of Père d'Entrecolle's letter, but the perfection of the technique and its translation into commercial export porcelain came only later, under the direct influence of the Du Paquier period (1719-1744). Unique to the Viennese Du Paquier porcelain factory was the laub- und bandelwerk border, based on two series of engravings by Paul Decker (d.1713). Continually modified and varied its essential elements were strapwork, palmettes, trelliswork cartouches, and foliate scrolls combined into a rhythmical pattern of baroque formality. Other China trade versions of the laub- und bandelwerk border, such as the more usual one with the addition of peacock and with panels of quilting rather than trellis- or scale work, are farther removed from their Viennese factory prototypes, and are perhaps derived from Hausmaler variants. (Corbeiller 1974, pp.68-69)

 

For an identically decorated teapot stand, please see:

Condition: Perfect.

 

References:

Corbeiller 1974, pp.68-69, cat. 30.

Hervouët 1986, cat. 13.17

 

Price: Sold.

 

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Sold Religious Subjects

Scenes of representations from the Bible are rather common in Chine de commande and they come in many variations mostly depicting stories from the New Testament. Although many tea wares, plates and dishes (but not apparently other dinner wares such as tureens or sauceboats) with biblical themes were produced, one may wonder if these porcelains were ever used at the tea or dinner table. Eating or drinking from Crucified Christ might well have been considered a sacrilege in the 18th century, especially in the Calvinist Netherlands. Most likely these pieces were destined for Catholic countries and used in a more or less religious context or simply had a decorative function, reminding its owner of Christian values. Formerly this type of Chine de commande, in particular pieces painted in encre de Chine, were called 'Jesuit porcelain'. However, any connection with the Jesuits in Peking or Macao or missionary activities is highly speculative and not supported by documentary evidence. Clearly Chine de commande with religious subjects was commercially ordered, just like the other types, and sold with a good profit to European customers. (Jörg 1989/2, p.160) 

Title page of the Lutheran Nederduytse Bijbel, Amsterdam 1750. with a portrait of Martin Luther and a cartouche showing Christ and his disciples.
Title page of the Lutheran Nederduytse Bijbel, Amsterdam 1750. with a portrait of Martin Luther and a cartouche showing Christ and his disciples.

in 2002, after a tip from a private collector, Jörg first discovered that the motifs below had actually been taken from illustrations by Jan Luyken (1649-1712) published in the Lutheran Nederduytse Bijbel. In 1608 Jan Luyken made a series of twenty-four prints of New Testament scenesthat became very popular. in 1712 these were followed by eighteem prints illustrating scenes from the Old Testament. Together these prints were used, with some minor alterrations, to illustrated several editions of the Bible. The first octavo Lutheran Nederduytse Bijbel with Luyken's illustrations was printed in 1734. The title page of this and subsequent editionsincludes a portrait of Martin Luther above a cartouche showing Christ and his disciples. This title page was engraved not by Jan Luyken but by someone else, yet it is interesting to note that the pottrait and cartouche motifs also occur on Chine de commande plates. Three other motifs, the Nativity, the Crucifixion and the Resurrection also occur on Chine de commande decorated objects, only plates and parts of tea, coffe and chocolate services are known with these decorations. Since the four designs on porcelain are base on Dutch prints, the supposed Jesuit connection is no longer valid. Although there is no mention of any contemporary orders for such plates in the records of the Dutch east India Company (VOC) , it may be assumed that they were bought privately by Dutch traders, like so many other Chine de commande designs. reformed Dutch officers always carried a Bible in their ship's chest, prferably a small one to save space for other commodities. the octavo edition served their needs well, and it is likely that the prints used as models were taken from such a Bible. (Jörg 2002/4, pp.171-176

 

Reference:

Jörg 2002/4, pp.171-176

Nativity
Nativity

Crucifixion
Crucifixion

Resurrection
Resurrection

Ascension
Ascension

2010902
2010902

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Western Subjects 1680-1800 - Mythological and Religious Subjects - Religious Subjects - Page 1

 

Object 2010902

 

Tea caddy

 

China

 

1740-1750

 

Height with cover 142 mm (5.59 inch), diameter of rim 77 mm (3.03 inch), diameter of mouthrim 30 mm (1.18 inch), diameter of footring 38 mm (1.50 inch)

 

Tea caddy of ovoid form with a domed cover, a fruit knob, on a footring with a glazed base. Decorated in encre de Chine and gilt with 'The Resurrection' design after an engraving by Jan Luyken (1649-1712). 

  

The Resurrection design of Christ enveloped by clouds rising above a seated figure of the Angel Gabriël, with Roman soldiers collapsed in a heap.on this tea caddy directly reflects the original engraved print source, with cross-hatching rather than washes used to indicate shading. Only a few touches of gilding break the monochrome palette, which echoes the black ink that would have been used on the source print.

  

resurrection

 

(Engraving reproduced from: Jörg 2002/4, pp.171-176)

 

For Jan Luyken's 'The Resurrection' engraving, please see:

 

For other objects, decorated in encre de Chine after Jan Luyken's 'The Resurrection' engraving, please see:

Condition: A restored rim of the caddy and restored frits to the rim of the cover.

 

References:

Goldsmith Phillips 1956, p.74, plate 8 & p.135 plate 53.

Beurdeley 1962, cat. 228

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1972, cat. 161

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1974, cat. 241

Jansen 1976, cat. 376

Gordon 1977, p.48, Plate X

Howard & Ayers 1978, Plate 313

Boulay 1984, cat. 14

Hervouët 1986, cat. 11.26 & 11.27

Jörg 1986/2, pp. 517-521

Jörg 1989/2, no. 59

Jörg 2002/4, pp.171-176

Bosmans 2008, p.24, afb. 4

Antonin & Suebsman 2009, cat. 29

HEmden 2015/1, pp.105-106, cat. 86 

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011849
2011849

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Western Subjects 1680-1800 - Mythological and Religious Subjects - Religious Subjects - Page 1

 

Object  2011849

 

Teacup and saucer

 

China

 

1740-1750

 

Height of teacup 48 mm (1.88 inch), diameter of rim 77 mm (3.03 inch), diameter of footring 38 mm (1.49 inch), weight 50 grams (1.76 ounce (oz.))

Height of saucer 29 mm (1.14 inch), diameter of rim 120 mm (4.72 inch), diameter of footring 67 mm (2.64 inch), weight 92 grams (3.25 ounce (oz.))

 

Teacup and saucer on footrings with straight rims. Decorated in encre de Chine and gilt with the birth of Christ. The teacup is decorated en suite.

 

Scenes of representations from the Bible are rather common in Chine de commande and they come in many variations mostly depicting stories from the New Testament. Although many tea wares, plates and dishes (but not apparently other dinner wares such as tureens or sauceboats) with biblical themes were produced, one may wonder if these porcelains were ever used at the tea or dinner table. Eating or drinking from Crucified Christ might well have been considered a sacrilege in the 18th century, especially in the Calvinist Netherlands. Most likely these pieces were destined for Catholic countries and used in a more or less religious context or simply had a decorative function, reminding its owner of Christian values. Formerly this type of Chine de commande, in particular pieces painted in encre de Chine, were called 'Jesuit porcelain'. However, any connection with the Jesuits in Peking or Macao or missionary activities is highly speculative and not supported by documentary evidence. Clearly Chine de commande with religious subjects was commercially ordered, just like the other types, and sold with a good profit to European customers. (Jörg 1989/2, p.160) 

 

in 2002, after a tip from a private collector, Jörg first discovered that the motif used on this teacup and saucers had actually been taken from an illustration by Jan Luyken (1649-1712) published in the Lutheran Nederduytse Bijbel. In 1608 Jan Luyken made a series of twenty-four prints of New Testament scenes that became very popular. in 1712 these were followed by eighteen prints illustrating scenes from the Old Testament. Together these prints were used, with some minor alterations, to illustrated several editions of the Bible. The first octavo Lutheran Bible with Luyken's illustrations was printed in 1734. The title page of this and subsequent editions includes a portrait of Martin Luther above a cartouche showing Christ and his disciples. This title page was engraved not by Jan Luyken but by someone else, yet it is interesting to note that the pottrait and cartouche motifs also occur on Chine de commande plates. Three other motifs, the Nativity, the Crucifixion and the Resurrection also occur on Chine de commande decorated objects, only plates and parts of tea, coffee and chocolate services are known with these decorations. As the four designs are based on Dutch prints, the supposed Jesuit connection is no longer valid. Although there is no mention of any contemporary orders for such plates in the records of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) , it may be assumed that they were bought privately by Dutch traders, like so many other Chine de commande designs. Reformed Dutch officers always carried a Bible in their ship's chest, preferably a small one to save space for other commodities. the octavo edition served their needs well, and it is likely that the prints used as models were taken from such a Bible. (Jörg 2002/4, pp.171-176

 

The Nativity design on this teacup and saucer directly reflects the original engraved print source, with cross-hatching rather than washes used to indicate shading. Only a few touches of gilding break the monochrome palette, which echoes the black ink that would have been used on the source print.

Nativity

 

(Reproduced from: Jörg 2002/4, pp.171-176)

 

For Jan Luyken's Nativity's engraving, please see:

For other objects, decorated in encre de Chine and gilt after Jan Luyken's Nativity's engraving, please see: 

For other polychrome decorated objects after Jan Luyken's Nativity's engraving, please see: 

Condition teacup: A restored (re-stuck) piece, and a hairline to the rim.

Condition saucer: Wear to the decoration and four small hairlines to the rim. 

 

References:

Beurdeley 1962, cat. 225

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1974, cat. 300

Gordon 1977, plate.10

Howard & Ayers 1978, vol. 1, cat. 305

Boulay 1984, cat. 14

Hervouët 1986, cat. 11.12

Jörg 2002/4, pp.171-176

Litzenburg 2003, cat. 203

Fuchs & Howard 2005, cat. 28.

Bosmans 2008, p.24, afb. 1 & 3

Emden 2015/1, pp.105-106, cat. 86

  

Price: Sold.

 

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