Pater Gratia Oriental Art

Sold Ceramics

 

Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century

 

Dishes

 

Page 2

The knowledge and expertise required to make porcelain was already present in Japan as far back as the early 17th century. According to legend a Korean potter discovered clay suitable for making porcelain near Arita on the island of Kyushu in the south of Japan in around 1605. Porcelain made from this clay, called shoki-Imari, was intended for the foreign market and soon acquired a surprisingly characteristic Japanese style of decoration, first with a blue underglaze decoration and later in enamel colours. The experience of the manufacturers with enamel colours turned out to be of great importance later. (source: Groninger Museum, Groningen) 

 

When Japanese potters started to make porcelain. It was inspired by underglaze blue porcelain manufactured in kilns of Southern China. By the mid-17th century, Chinese porcelain went into decline due to social unrest and accompanying dynastic change. Dutch merchants, from their base on the small island of Deshima, near Nagasaki, were permitted to trade with Japan. Responding to European demand, the Dutch encouraged the fledgling Japanese porcelain industry to fill the gap left by China.

 

The porcelain the Dutch brought to Europe in the 17th century was in most cases consciously designed to cater to western tastes. To ensure that they would find a ready market, the Dutch often made wooden or earthenware models of designs and sent those to Japan to be copied. 

 

Flasks, ewers and large dishes are examples for shapes made for the Dutch. They are painted in underglaze blue or a palette of enamels dominated by red, green and blue with flowers, figures and landscapes which would not follow traditional Japanese aesthetics. Vessels with landscape designs are often inspired by 17th century Chinese Transitional style. Plates decorated with designs organized by panels imitate the successful blue-and-white Chinese Kraak ware. To make these export wares even more attractive for the Dutch clients numbers of early Japanese export wares are painted with a stylized tulip, referring to the tulipomania, the great Dutch craze of the 1630s. (source: Keramiek Museum Princessehof, Leeuwarden)

2012037
2012037

Sold Ceramics - Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 2

 

Object 2012037

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1670-1700

 

Height 76 mm (2.99 inch), diameter 443 mm (17.44 inch), diameter of footring 208 mm (8.19 inch), weight 3,056 grams (107.80 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. On the base six spur-marks in a star-pattern. Decorated in underglaze blue with a flower basket with scalloped overhead handle filled with a blossoming tree. On the sides scrolling branches of pine, prunud and bamboo (shõ-chiku-bai). The rim with scrolling foliage and pine filling the ground. On the reverse two large flowering peony sprays.

 

The decoration with prunus, pine and bamboo (shõ-chiku-bai) is also known as the 'Three Friends of Cold Winter'. The design originated in China. It is the combination of pine, bamboo and prunus, symbolically representing Confucius, Buddha and Lao Tse. Once the 'three friends' were standing around a jar containing vinegar. Each of them tasted the liquid. Lao Tse, the gentle, called it, sweet, Buddha, the meditator, called it bitter and Confucius called it sour. But they eventually agreed that it was all the same liquid. This legend represents the idea that the three 'religions' originated from the same source. The 'friendship' of the three trees is further suggested by the property they have in common of strength during hard times. The bamboo bends with the wind but never breaks, the prunus flowers even when there is still snow and the pine is an evergreen. Together they symbolically represent long life and happiness. (Arts 1983, p.140)   

 

In Japan porcelain is being produced since c.1600. Due to the internal conflicts in China during the second half of the 17th century kilns were destroyed, the porcelain production staggered and supply routes were cut off. In order to keep up with the ever-growing demand for porcelain from the homeland the VOC, switched to Decima, Japan. Since 1641 a Dutch trading post was based on this artificial Island in the Bay of Nagasaki. With expanding Japanese production, due to Dutch demand, the decorative elements, the designs and the more freely way in which they were applied by the porcelain decorators became more Japanese. It marked a clear change from the traditional Japanese interpretation of Chinese kraak designs. The powerful centre design and both continuous scrolls on this specific dish are good examples of that change. (Jörg 2003/1, p.260)

 

Condition: A short scratch to the glaze on the base.

 

References:

Arts 1983, p.140

Jörg 2003/1, p.260

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011306
2011306

Sold Ceramics - Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 2 

 

Object 2011306

 

Dish

 

Japan, Arita presumably Sarugawa

 

1660-1680

 

Height 57 mm (2.24 inch), diameter of rim 353 mm (13.90 inch), diameter of footring 180 mm (7.09 inch)

 

Exhibited: The Asian Galleries Reinmagined - Color Across Asia held from 21 December 2016 to 13 May 2018 at the Ackland Art Museum, The University of North Carolina at Chaphil Hill, The United States of America, Object Guide no. 18.

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. On the base five spur-marks in a X-pattern. Decorated in underglaze blue. The central design shows a river scene with a farmer leading two cows over a bridge surrounded by a scroll-border characteristic of Chinese Transitional ware. The border design shows wide and narrow panels filled with single figures, 'tulip' motifs and stylised flowers. The reverse is divided into panels and sketchily painted.

 

The was design influenced by the decoration on Chinese T'ien-ch'i porcelain, which was exported to Japan. In 'Imari-Porzellan am Hofe der Kaiserin Maria Theresia' it is stated that the figure on the dish is most likely to be Tai Gongwang (Jiang Ziya), a politician at the beginning of the Zhou-period (11th cent. - 221 BCE). He was spotted when fishing in the river Weisui by the ruler Wen Wang, Tai Gongwang later became his teacher, he also served Wen Wang’s son Wu Wang the first emperor of the Zhou dynasty (r.1122-1115 BC). According to this legend a decoration of a man fishing is most likely to be Tai Gongwang. On this dish the Japanese artist used a theme that Chinese export wares in the early 17th century used. Jörg states that this is the best known type of Japanese porcelain imitating a specific Chinese group of dishes with a kraak body and a panelled border, but a Transitional decoration dating to 1635-1645. Japanese dishes of this design are not rare and were made in different sizes. A large example measuring 520 mm (20.47 inch), is in the Topkapi Saray Museum, Istanbul. (Düsseldorf 2000, p.45), (Jörg 2003/1, pp.28-29)

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see;

Condition: A star-shaped hairline to the centre/base.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 26

Arts 1983, Plate 12

Harrisson 1985, cat. 88

Suchomel 1997, cat. 21

Düsseldorf 2000, cat. 6

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 9

Jörg 2011/1, cat. 47

 

Price: Sold.

 

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More pictures of object 2010945, an identically shaped and decorated, sold dish >>

2011892
2011892

Sold Ceramics - Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 2

 

Object 2011892

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1660-1690

 

Height 110 mm (4.33 inch), diameter of rim 619 mm (24.37 inch), diameter of footring 305 mm (12.01 inch)

 

Large dish on footring. Wide spreading flat rim. On the base six spur-marks. Decorated in underglaze blue with birds and a flowering plant growing from rockwork in a circular cartouche. The sides and rim in Chinese kraak style (fuyõ-de with six equal wide panels) outlined with two lines each filled with flowering plants and two birds. The reverse is undecorated.

 

These kind of extremely large dishes (550 mm (21.65 inch) inches and up) were probably used for display as luxury items and were not meant for daily use. In Japan large dishes and bowls were only used in exceptional cases, such as certain initiation rites of the nobility. These large dishes came into fashion in the second half of the 17th century. They are proof of the fact that by that time the technical skills of the Japanese potters had developed to a very high level as firing these massive dishes required great technical skill. (Ostkamp 2011, p.12 & p.31, note 39).

 

This type of border with six equal panels generally containing plants is best known from the plates with the East India Company monogram in a landscape adapted to incorporate. Sometimes these equal panels are outlined with two lines as on K'ang Hsi porcelain. (Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, p.14 & p.50)

 

For smaller, identically decorated, dishes please see;

Condition: Near perfect, only a firing flaw in the centre and a shallow chip to the footring.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, p.14, p.50 & cat. 24

Kyushu 1990/1, cat. 62 & cat. 63

Ostkamp 2011, p.12 & p.31, note 39

 

Price: Sold.

 

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More pictures of object 2011603, an identically shaped and decorated, sold dish >>

2011979ABC
2011979ABC

Sold Ceramics - Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 2

 

Object 2011979ABC

 

Three dishes

 

Japan, Arita presumably Sarugawa

 

1670-1690

 

2011979A: height 31 mm (1.22 inch), diameter of rim 216 mm (8.50 inch), diameter of footring 105 mm (4.13 inch), weight 422 grams (14.89 ounce (oz.))

2011979B: height 33 mm (1.30 inch), diameter of rim 213 mm (8.39 inch), diameter of footring 102 mm (4.02 inch), weight 414 grams (14.60 ounce (oz.))

2011979A: height 34 mm (1.34 inch), diameter of rim 213 mm (8.39 inch), diameter of footring 100 mm (3.94 inch), weight 365 grams (12.88 ounce (oz.))

 

Three dishes on footrings, flat rims. On two of the bases a single spur-makts and on one three spur-marks in a V-pattern. Decorated in underglaze blue with flowering chrysanthemum and fruiting pomegranate branches. The sides divided into panels filled with flower sprays. The reverses are undecorated.

 

Condition: 

2011979A: Perfect.

2011979B: A tiny fleabite to the rim.

2011979C: Perfect.

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011909
2011909

Sold Ceramics - Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 2

 

Object 2011909

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1670-1700

 

Height 33 mm (1.30 inch), diameter of rim 277 mm (10.91 inch), diameter of footring 143 mm (5.63 inch), weight 624 grams (22.01 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. On the base four spur-marks (all still attached) in a Y-pattern. Crackled glaze. Decorated in underglaze blue with prunus flower sprays, a bare branch and a bird on rockwork in a low flowerpot, the flower pot is flanked by two small bamboo plants. This has been placed in a sketchily painted landscape near a lake. On the sides and rim large-scale spiralling karakusa scrolls with lotus flowers The reverse is undecorated.   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On the base four spur-marks (all still attached) in a Y-pattern, making the centre of the dish slightly convex and the lower part of the flat rim slightly bending down.

 

The flowerpot evokes Chinese kraak porcelain where this motif sometimes occurs differently. Otherwise the motifs, the composition and the style are decidedly Japanese. For example, by giving the large spiny karakusa scroll (kara meaning Chinese and kusa meaning grass) a bold continuous frame, the centre decoration is made the focus of attention and has more depth than is usual on kraak porcelain. This dish exemplifies the rapid change in Japanese export porcelain from meticulously imitating Chinese examples towards a more unrestrained, Japanese decorative style. (Jörg 2003/1, p.181

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see;

Condition: Overall fine crazing to the glaze. A chip with a short connected hairline to the rim.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 37

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1977, cat. 253

London 1997, cat. 27

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 123, & p.260

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011506
2011506

Sold Ceramics - Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 2

 

Object 2011506

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1670-1700

 

Height 60 mm (2.36 inch), diameter of rim 360 mm (14.17 inch), diameter of footring 180 mm (7.09 inch), weight 1.647 grams (58.10 ounce (oz.))

 

Exhibited: The Asian Galleries Reinmagined - Color Across Asia held from 21 December 2016 to 13 May 2018 at the Ackland Art Museum, The University of North Carolina at Chaphil Hill, The United States of America, Object Guide no. 28.

  

Dish on footring, flat rim. On the base five spur-marks. Decorated in underglaze blue with flowering chrysanthemums growing from behind a fence and flowering peonies growing from pierced rockwork enclosed by a triple concentric band. On the rim a border of large-scale karakusa (spiky lotus) design with flowers. The reverse is undecorated.

 

In Japan porcelain is being produced since c.1600. Due to the internal conflicts in China during the second half of the 17th century kilns were destroyed, the porcelain production staggered and supply routes were cut off. In order to keep up with the ever growing demand for porcelain from the homeland the VOC, switched to Decima, Japan. Since 1641 a Dutch trading post was based on this artificial Island in the Bay of Nagasaki. With expanding Japanese production due to Dutch demand the decorative elements the designs and the more freely way in which they were applied by the porcelain decorators became more Japanese. It marked a clear change from the traditional Japanese interpretation of Chinese kraak designs. The powerful centre design and continuous karakusa scroll (kara means Chinese, kusa means grass) on this specific dish are good examples of that change. (Jörg 2003/1, p.260)

 

Shards of a similar decorated dish were excavated from the wreck of the Swedish East Indiaman Götheborg that ran aground and sunk in 1745 less than a kilometre short of her home port.

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see;

For dishes with identical karakusa decorated rims, please see;

Condition: Perfect.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 34

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1977, cat. 253

Wästefelt et al. 1991, p.59

Suchomel 1997, cat. 23

Impey 2002, cat. 129

Jörg 2002/2, cat. 123

Jörg 2003/1, p.260 & cat. 138

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2012062
2012062

Sold Ceramics - Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th century - Dishes - Page 2

 

Object 2012062

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1680-1700

 

Height 38 mm (1.50 inch), diameter of rim 149 mm (5.87 inch), diameter of footring 78 mm (3.07 inch), weight 198 grams (6.98 ounce (oz.))

 

Decagonal dish on footring, moulded sides, upturned underglaze brown-edged rim. On the bas a single supr-mark. Decorated in underglaze blue with a river scene covering the whole surface. On the right-hand bank two scholars seated at a table near a flowering prunus tree, on the opposite bank a servant near a banana tree, walking towards a bridge. On the reverse, a foliate scroll. Marked on the base with a square fuku (good luck) mark in running script.

 

For a similarly decorated dish, please see:

Condition: Restored.

 

Reference:

London 1997, cat. 78

 

Price: Sold.

 

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