Pater Gratia Oriental Art

Japanese Porcelain

 

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century

 

Dishes

 

Page 2

The knowledge and expertise required to make porcelain was already present in Japan as far back as the early 17th century. According to legend a Korean potter discovered clay suitable for making porcelain near Arita on the island of Kyushu in the south of Japan in around 1605. Porcelain made from this clay, called shoki-Imari, was intended for the foreign market and soon acquired a surprisingly characteristic Japanese style of decoration, first with a blue underglaze decoration and later in enamel colours. The experience of the manufacturers with enamel colours turned out to be of great importance later. (source: Groninger Museum, Groningen) 

 

When Japanese potters started to make porcelain. It was inspired by underglaze blue porcelain manufactured in kilns of Southern China. By the mid-17th century, Chinese porcelain went into decline due to social unrest and accompanying dynastic change. Dutch merchants, from their base on the small island of Deshima, near Nagasaki, were permitted to trade with Japan. Responding to European demand, the Dutch encouraged the fledgling Japanese porcelain industry to fill the gap left by China.

 

The porcelain the Dutch brought to Europe in the 17th century was in most cases consciously designed to cater to western tastes. To ensure that they would find a ready market, the Dutch often made wooden or earthenware models of designs and sent those to Japan to be copied. 

 

Flasks, ewers and large dishes are examples for shapes made for the Dutch. They are painted in underglaze blue or a palette of enamels dominated by red, green and blue with flowers, figures and landscapes which would not follow traditional Japanese aesthetics. Vessels with landscape designs are often inspired by 17th century Chinese Transitional style. Plates decorated with designs organized by panels imitate the successful blue-and-white Chinese Kraak ware. To make these export wares even more attractive for the Dutch clients numbers of early Japanese export wares are painted with a stylized tulip, referring to the tulipomania, the great Dutch craze of the 1630s. (source: Keramiek Museum Princessehof, Leeuwarden)

2012116
2012116

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes

 

Object 2012116

 

Dish

 

Japan, Arita presumably Sarugawa

 

1670-1690

 

Provenance: Fa. A.C. Beeling & Zn, Hofleverancier (seller to The Dutch Royal House), Leeuwarden, the Netherlands.

 

Height 55 mm (2.16 inch), diameter of rim 335 mm (13.19 inch), diameter of footring 171 mm (6.73 inch), weight 1.458 grams (51.43 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, wide flat rim. On the base four spur-marks in a Y-pattern. Decorated in underglaze blue in a Chinese kraak style with in the centre a decoration of two branches with fruit, one with pomegranates and one with finger-lemon fruit also called 'Buddha's-hand citron'. On the sides and rim large panels filled with stylised peonies and precious objects alternating with narrower panels filled with florets. The reverse is undecorated. To the base an old rectangular paper dealers label that reads: 'Fa. A.C. Beeling & Zn., Hofleverancier (seller to The Dutch Royal House), Leeuwarden, JAPAN, 3e kwart 17e eeuw', and an old rectangular paper label that reads: 'afb.8 Scheurleer 1659 ?'. 

 

The pomegranate and Buddha's Hand citron symbolically represent fertility and happiness, together with the peach (longevity) they are being named 'The three Abundances'. (Arts 1983, p.140)

 

Fingered citron or Buddha's hand (image courtesy of S. Fan)

 

Although the border division copies kraak porcelain, the decoration of the two large branches filling the centre seems to be based on Chinese prototypes of the later Transitional-early Kangxi period. The Japanese potter combined two styles to create a hybrid, fashionable Japanese novelty. Dishes and plates of this design which were apparently popular, were made in different sizes. (Jörg 2003/1, p.28

 

For identically decorated dishes please see;

On the base two old rectangular paper labels.

 

2012116 8 Dealers label AC BeelingBusiness card A.C. Beeling

 

 

Label 1: An old reactangular paper dealer's label that reads:

 

'Fa. A.C. Beeling & Zn.,

Hofleverancier (seller to The Dutch Royal House) - Leeuwarden

JAPAN

3e kwart 17e eeuw'

 

Antiquarian A. C. Beeling & Zn was founded in 1886 by A. C. Beeling, son of Johannes Beeling, a master silversmith who had been trading in silver ever since 1864 (Leeuwarder Courant, 03-09-1973). The current A. C. Beeling is the grandson of the founder of the company. His father expanded the business, which at first mostly dealt with clocks and watches, with silver, furniture, china and more (De Telegraaf, 08-10-1993). A. C. Beeling & Zn received its Royal Warrent of Appointment in 1939 (Leeuwarder Nieuwsblad, 04-08-1939). (source: rkd.nl)

 

2012116 8 label Afb 8 Scheurleer 1659

 

Label 2: An old rectangular paper label that reads: 

 

'afb.8

Scheurleer

1659 ?'. 

 

The text on this rectangular paper label referes to a similary decorated dish (catalogue number 8) in: 

Japans porselein met blauwe decoraties uit de tweede helft van de zeventiende en de eerste helft van de achttiende eeuw, (D.F. Lunsingh Scheurleer, in, Mededelingenblad Nederlandse Vereniging van Vrienden van de Ceramiek, 64/65, 1971), p.58, cat. 8.  

 

For a Chinese cream dish, over-decorated in England c.1770-1830, with 'A.C. Beeling & Zn'.dealers label, please see:

Condition: Some glaze firing flaws to the central decoration.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 8

Woodward 1974, cat. 26(b)

Jenyns 1979, cat. 16a

Arts 1983, p.140

Hartog 1990, cat. 153

Suchomel 1997, cat. 25

Jörg 1999, cat. 27

Impey 2002, cat. 128

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 8

Kyushu 2003, cat. 2595

 

Price: € 599 - $ 708 - £ 528

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2010936
2010936

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 2

 

Object 2010936

 

Large dish

 

Japan

 

1660-1680

 

Height 70 mm (2.75 inch), diameter of rim 440 mm (17.32 inch), diameter of footring 222 mm (8.74 inch), weight 2.555 grams (90.13 ounce (oz.))

 

Large dish on footring, flat rim. On the base five spur-marks in a X-pattern. Decorated in underglaze blue with a flowerpot in a landscape near a lake filled with flowering plants, a bare branch, rocks and a duck. The duck is observing a bird in flight. The flowerpot is flanked by two small plants. On the sides and rim a large-scale karakusa (spiky lotus)border design with lotus flowerheads. On the reverse two wide flower sprays.

 

In Japan porcelain is being produced since c.1600. Due to the internal conflicts in China during the second half of the 17th century kilns were destroyed, the porcelain production staggered and supply routes were cut off. In order to keep up with the ever growing demand for porcelain from the homeland the VOC, switched to Decima, Japan. Since 1641 a Dutch trading post was based on this artificial Island in the Bay of Nagasaki. With expanding Japanese production due to Dutch demand the decorative elements the designs and the more freely way in which they were applied by the porcelain decorators became more Japanese. It marked a clear change from the traditional Japanese interpretation of Chinese kraak designs. The powerful centre design and continuous karakusa scroll (kara means Chinese, kusa means grass) on this specific dish are good examples of that change. (Jörg 2003/1, p.260)

 

The flowerpot evokes Chinese kraak porcelain where this motif occurs differently. Otherwise the motifs, the composition and the style are decidedly Japanese. The large spiny scroll is given a bold, continuous frame, the centre decoration is made the focus of attention and has more depth than is usual on Chinese kraak porcelain. This dish exemplifies the rapid change in Japanese export porcelain from meticulously imitating Chinese examples towards a more unrestrained, Japanese decorative style. (Jörg 2002/2, p.181, cat. 123)

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see;

Impey illustrates a more evolved version of the same flowerpot design with the karakusa scroll border. The landscape setting of the flowerpot near a lake has changed into the placing on a terrace, the bare branch has evolved into a pine tree and both birds have flown away. For this dish, please see;

Condition: A large hairline to the rim.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 37

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1977, cat. 253

Daendels 1981, cat. 29

London 1997, cat. 27

Impey 2002, cat. 129 & 130

Jörg 2002/2, cat. 123

Jörg 2003/1, p.260

 

Price: € 1.499 - $ 1.669 - £ 1,354

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011080
2011080

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 2

 

Object 2011080

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1670-1700

 

Height 47 mm (1.85 inch), diameter 272 mm (10.70 inch), diameter of footring 145 mm (5.71 inch), weight 741 grams (26.14 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. On the base four spur-marks in a Y-pattern. Decorated in underglaze blue with flowering chrysanthemums growing from behind a fence and flowering peonies growing from pierced rockwork enclosed by a triple concentric band. On the rim a border of large-scale karakusa (spiky lotus) design with flowers. The reverse is undecorated.

 

In Japan porcelain is being produced since c.1600. Due to the internal conflicts in China during the second half of the 17th century kilns were destroyed, the porcelain production staggered and supply routes were cut off. In order to keep up with the ever growing demand for porcelain from the homeland the VOC, switched to Decima, Japan. Since 1641 a Dutch trading post was based on this artificial Island in the Bay of Nagasaki. With expanding Japanese production due to Dutch demand the decorative elements the designs and the more freely way in which they were applied by the porcelain decorators became more Japanese. It marked a clear change from the traditional Japanese interpretation of Chinese kraak designs. The powerful centre design and continuous karakusa scroll (kara means Chinese, kusa means grass) on this specific dish are good examples of that change. (Jörg 2003/1, p.260)

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see;

For dishes with identical, karakusa, decorated rims, please see;

Condition: Two firing flaws to the centre.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 34

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1977, cat. 253

Wästefelt et al. 1991, p.59

Suchomel 1997, cat. 23

Impey 2002, cat. 129

Jörg 2002/2, cat. 123

Jörg 2003/1, p.260 & cat. 138

 

Price: € 599 - $ 667 - £ 541

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

More pictures >>

2011397
2011397

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 2

 

Object 2011397

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1670-1700

 

Height 45 mm (1.77 inch), diameter of rim 332 mm (13.07 inch), diameter of footring 164 mm (6.46 inch), weight 1.079 grams (38.06 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. On the base a single spur-mark. Decorated in underglaze blue with flowering chrysanthemums growing from behind a fence and flowering peonies growing from pierced rockwork enclosed by a triple concentric band. On the rim a border of large-scale karakusa (spiky lotus) design with flowers. The reverse is undecorated.

 

In Japan porcelain is being produced since c.1600. Due to the internal conflicts in China during the second half of the 17th century kilns were destroyed, the porcelain production staggered and supply routes were cut off. In order to keep up with the ever growing demand for porcelain from the homeland the VOC, switched to Decima, Japan. Since 1641 a Dutch trading post was based on this artificial Island in the Bay of Nagasaki. With expanding Japanese production due to Dutch demand the decorative elements the designs and the more freely way in which they were applied by the porcelain decorators became more Japanese. It marked a clear change from the traditional Japanese interpretation of Chinese kraak designs. The powerful centre design and continuous karakusa scroll (kara means Chinese, kusa means grass) on this specific dish are good examples of that change. (Jörg 2003/1, p.260)

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see;

For dishes with identically karakusa decorated rims, please see;

Condition: A firing flaw to the exterior wall. Two clumps fine firing crazing to the glaze and one firing hairline to the exterior wall/rim. A shallow chip to the footring.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 34

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1977, cat. 253

Wästefelt et al. 1991, p.59

Suchomel 1997, cat. 23

Impey 2002, cat. 129

Jörg 2002/2, cat. 123

Jörg 2003/1, p.260 & cat. 138

 

Price: € 799 - $ 890 - £ 721

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011589
2011589

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 2

 

Object 2011589

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1670-1700

 

Height 60 mm (2.36 inch), diameter of rim 370 mm (14.56 inch), diameter of footring 178 mm (7.01 inch), weight 1,584 grams (55.87 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. On the base five spur-marks in a X-pattern. Decorated in underglaze blue with flowering chrysanthemums growing from behind a fence and flowering peonies growing from pierced rockwork enclosed by a triple concentric band. On the rim a border of large-scale karakusa (spiky lotus) design with flowers. The reverse is undecorated.

 In Japan porcelain is being produced since c.1600. Due to the internal conflicts in China during the second half of the 17th century kilns were destroyed, the porcelain production staggered and supply routes were cut off. In order to keep up with the ever growing demand for porcelain from the homeland the VOC, switched to Decima, Japan. Since 1641 a Dutch trading post was based on this artificial Island in the Bay of Nagasaki. With expanding Japanese production due to Dutch demand the decorative elements the designs and the more freely way in which they were applied by the porcelain decorators became more Japanese. It marked a clear change from the traditional Japanese interpretation of Chinese kraak designs. The powerful centre design and continuous karakusa scroll (kara means Chinese, kusa means grass) on this specific dish are good examples of that change. (Jörg 2003/1, p.260)

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see;

For dishes with identically karakusa decorated rims, please see;

Condition: A firing flaw to the exterior wall and a hairline to the rim.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 34

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1977, cat. 253

Wästefelt et al. 1991, p.59

Suchomel 1997, cat. 23

Impey 2002, cat. 129

Jörg 2002/2, cat. 123

Jörg 2003/1, p. 260 & cat. 138

 

Price: € 999 - $ 1.112 - £ 902

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

More pictures >>

2011609
2011609

JapaJapanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 2

 

Object 2011609

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1670-1700

 

Height 60 mm (2.36 inch), diameter of rim 362 mm (14.25 inch), diameter of footring 164 mm (6.46 inch), weight 1,423 grams (50.20 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. Two spur-marks on the base. Decorated in underglaze blue with a flower vase on a fenced terrace filled with a flowering peony plant in a circular cartouche. On the rim a border of large-scale karakusa (spiky lotus) design with flowers. The reverse is undecorated. On the base, in black paint, an old collectors number that reads 'E220'.

 

2011609

 

On the base, in black paint, an old collectors number that reads 'E220'.

 

In Japan porcelain is being produced since c.1600. Due to the internal conflicts in China during the second half of the 17th century kilns were destroyed, the porcelain production staggered and supply routes were cut off. In order to keep up with the ever growing demand for porcelain from the homeland the VOC, switched to Decima, Japan. Since 1641 a Dutch trading post was based on this artificial Island in the Bay of Nagasaki. With expanding Japanese production due to Dutch demand the decorative elements the designs and the more freely way in which they were applied by the porcelain decorators became more Japanese. It marked a clear change from the traditional Japanese interpretation of Chinese kraak designs. The powerful centre design and continuous karakusa scroll (kara means Chinese, kusa means grass) on this specific dish are good examples of that change. (Jörg 2003/1, p.260

 

Although the flower vase on a fenced terrace is still reminiscent of those on Chinese kraak porcelain, the style of painting, the composition and in particular the karakusa scroll border design are characteristic of the later 17th-century production when the earlier styles and motifs had been combined into new patterns. (Jörg 2003/1, p.130)

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see;

Condition: Overall fine crazing to the glaze and three hairlines to the rim.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 36

London 1997, cat. 27

Jörg 2003/1, p. 260 & cat. 138

 

Price: € 599 - $ 667 - £ 541

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

More pictures >>