Pater Gratia Oriental Art

Sold Ceramics

 

Sold Chine de commande

 

Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800

 

Page 1

Armorial porcelain forms a special group within Chine de commande. Made especially for Eastern markets, this porcelain was decorated with the coats of arms of European families, cities or towns. The first armorial porcelain was produced for the Portuguese market around 1540. The Dutch started ordering armorial porcelain in 1700 when they replaced the Portuguese as the main porcelain traders in Asia in circa 1630. These objects were originally manufactured in the style of blue-and-white Kraak porcelain; when enamel colours were developed later, these were also applied. This porcelain could be ordered to specification in China. Tableware with a family coat of arms was a treasured possession that enhanced the status of the owner. (Source: Keramiek Museum Princessehof, Leeuwarden)

In the Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 category the sold objects are categorized in the following alphabetical order:

  • Armorial - Dutch
  • Armorial - British
  • Pseudo-Armorial

 

Sold Armorial - Dutch

 

2011499
2011499

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Armorial - Dutch - Page 1

 

Object 2011499

 

Dish

 

China

 

1710-1730

 

Height 18 mm (0.71 inch), diameter of rim 222 mm (8.74 inch), diameter of footring 120 mm (4.72 inch), weight 317 grams (11.18 ounce (oz.))

 

Published: Porzellanschätze der Kangxi-Zeit / Porcelain Treasures of the Kangxi Period, (Exhibition catalogue, Deutsch-Chinesische Verlagsanstalt, Düsseldorf / Beijing 2015), pp.226-227, cat 125.

 

Exhibited: Porzellanschätze der Kangxi-Zeit / Porcelain Treasures of the Kangxi Period, (Exhibition catalogue, Deutsch-Chinesische Verlagsanstalt, Düsseldorf / Beijing 2015), pp.226-227, cat 125.

 

Dish on footring, flat underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkou). Chinese Imari, decorated in underglaze blue and overglaze iron-red and gold with a coat of arms. On the sides a flower border, round the rim flower sprays. On the reverse six single prunus blossoms in iron-red.

 

This coat of arms, a Chevron between three eagles and a bezant, in chief an unidentified charge; the crest is a heron-like bird with an eel (or snake) in its beak between two wings, was borne by the Van Gellicum family. It can be seen on a seal of 1921 which belonged to J.A. van Gellicum, who was a cavalry major. He descended from a family of probably wealthy farmers in the village of Deil in the Betuwe, Gelderland, The Netherlands. In this family either Jan Roelofs van Gellicum (1684-) or his son, Roelof van Gellicum (1708-), could have ordered this armorial porcelain. Jan Roelof married in 1707 and his son Roelof in 1749, the latter to Elisabeth Hoeken (1718-). In the 18th century three members of another branch of the Van Gellicum family (who are not related to the Deil family as far as is known) could have ordered these armorial dishes. The first two are the surgeon Chr. van Gellekom living in Amsterdam in 1742 and Hermanus van Gellicum, who also lived in Amsterdam about 1750-1760. The third is most interesting, Harmen van Gellecom, a native from Gorinchem The Netherlands, who was kwartiermeester (quarter-master or leading seaman), on four East Indiamen sailing on behalf of the Dutch East India Company, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC), Chamber of Zeeland to Batavia between the years 1728 and 1736. The date of this porcelain correlates with his time in the Indies. This dish was part of a very large set of dishes, over 100 recorded examples (so far only dishes have been identified) Three sizes are known 380 mm (14.96 inch), 355 mm (13.98 inch) and 225 mm (8.86 inch). On the sides a floral scroll  border, the rim with rocks, flowers, leaves and zig-zag lines. The zig-zag lines represent a thunderbolt, seen on Delft faience of the first quarter of the 18th century and based on Japanese patterns. (Kroes 2007, pp.118-119)

  

On basis of 20th century lacquer seals these arms are usually attributed to the Van Gellicum family, but since nothing seems to be known about 18th century members, the identification is questionable. Dishes of this design are not rare and usually have a Dutch pedigree. There are other examples (unpublished) in the Drents Museum Assen, and the Keramiekmuseum Princessehof, Leeuwarden. (Jörg & Van Campen 1997, p.302)

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see:

Condition: A frit to the rim and a X-shaped hairline to the base.

 

References:

Jörg & Van Campen 1997, cat. 353

Amsterdam 2006, lot 1095

Kroes 2007, cat.no. 20a & 20b

Sargent 2012, p.183

Düsseldorf 2015, cat. 123.1-123.5

Suchomel 2015, cat. 196

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2010520
2010520

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Armorial - Dutch - Page 1

 

Object 2010520

 

Teacup

 

China

 

1730-1735

 

Height 38 mm (1.49 inch), diameter of rim 140 mm (5.51 inch), diameter of footring 75 mm (2.95 inch)

 

Teacup on footring, slightly everted rim. Polychrome decorated in various overglaze enamels with a Chinese water and mountain landscape with rocks, trees, houses on a shore, a bridge, several Chinese figures and two little boats on a lake alternating with an octagonal panel painted with a coat of arms: on a black background a gold waving bend with two gold roses or flower heads; the crest is a half-naked figure with a club on the right shoulder. The mantling has an open pattern of scrolling leaves. On the bottom a single flower spray. Around the inner rim a foliate and floral scroll pattern border.

 

This coat of arms was borne by the "Beekman" family from Middelburg and Nijmegen. About 1720-1730 there were two Beekman brothers living in Middelburg, Samuel and Adriaan. They were related to the influential Van de Putte family and in 1730 both brothers were heirs of Cornelis van de Putte. Both brothers held positions with the Middelburgsche Commercie Compagnie (MCC), they probably owed their position within the MCC to their grandfather, the MCC director, Hermanus van de Putte. In the 1740s Adriaan belonged to the (upper) middle class of Middelburg and probably had good connections with the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and its officials and it would have been easy for him to order these Armorial wares. Round the inner rim a foliate and floral scroll border. On the bottom an orchid (Cymbidium virescens), the Lan Hua. a motif commonly seen on fine Chinese export porcelain of around 1740. The mountain and water landscape is similar to the neighbourhood of the porcelain manufacturing town Jingdezhen in the province of Kiangsi. (Kroes 2007, p.138)

 

In total there are only three or four plates in different sizes: 230 mm (12.60 inch) and 430 mm (16.93 inch), one coffee cup, two tea bowls and a saucer known with this Armorial. (Kroes 2007, p.138)

 

A dish with an identical armorial design can be found in the collection of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, number; AK-NM-13402. 

 

For an identically decorated dish, please see:

Condition: Restored.

 

Reference:

Kroes 2007, cat. no. 43

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2010735
2010735

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Armorial - Dutch - Page 1

 

Object 2010735

 

Teapot

 

China

 

1732-1735

 

Provenance: Polly Latham, Boston, USA.

 

Height (with cover) 125 mm (4.92 inch), height (without cover) 92 mm (3.62 inch), diameter handle to spout 150 mm (5.90 inch), diameter of mouthrim 53 mm (2.09 inch), diameter of footring 50 mm (1.97 inch)

 

Teapot of pear shape on footring, straight spout and C-shaped handle a domed cover with pointed knob, Polychrome decorated in yellow, rose-red, blue and green overglaze enamels, black / grisaille and gold with an armorial painted in a roundel flanked by stems of flowering peonies finely painted in grisaille on each side of the body. Around the mouthrim a border filled with brightly coloured flowers (peony, lotus, hibiscus) and tendrils. The cover with stems of flowering peonies finely painted in grisaille, round the rim a border filled with brightly coloured flowers (peony, lotus, hibiscus) and tendrils. On the base two paper labels that read: "Polly Latham" and "KIEN-LUNG 1736-1795".

 

The rich and beautiful palette of famille rose enamels with pink, yellow, blue, green, black / grisaille and gold is typical of the Yongzheng period (1723-1735), in particular of the first half of the 1730s.

 

The coat of arms is depicted on a green and black hatched background in the medallion: a large gold leaf-like figure (or a human organ) with three gold hanging fruits each with foliated stem, possibly pine-cones or mulberries, the helmet comprising a gold skull with above a withered tree-like figure with five branches, surrounded by mantling with scrolling leaves in rose and blue. These arms with rather peculiar heraldic charges are unidentified, although they have been wrongly attributed to the Le Saulnier family from France. The skull and the branches, or possibly ears of corn, point to new life (the grain of corn dying in the earth to create new life).

 

This particular armorial design and in fact the overall style and decoration in various overglaze enamels is almost identical to the armorial service of the Dutch Titsingh family, dated 1732-1735. There are only some minor differences regarding the shape of the shield, helmet and mantling, please seehere.

 

It seems that whoever commissioned this service would have been a colleague of Abraham Titsingh and his fellow surgeons in Amsterdam. It might have been made for the Amsterdam surgeons' guild. The heraldic charges such as the leaf-like figure, the skull with branches and probably also the fruit points to the medical profession. As far as we know, Abraham's fellow trustees of the guild in 1732, Vermey, Van Wesik, Van der Swed, De Bruijn and Monnikhoff, bore quite different arms from these. If it's made for the surgeons' guild to decorate the guild room, Abraham Titsingh must have taken the opportunity to order armorial porcelain both for himself and for the guild room. There are no recorded arms for the Amsterdam surgeons' guild, although guilds in other Dutch cities had arms, such as the Deventer and Gouda guilds, bearing arms with a skull and two cross bones (Deventer) and a pentalpha or star of David with a sun and two stars (Gouda). 

 

This teapot is one of only seven objects documented with this specific armorial design.

 

All information:(Kroes 2007, pp.177-179)

 

For a tea-caddy, with identical armorial design, please see:

For a dish from the armorial service of the Dutch Titsingh family please see:

Condition: A rough tip of the knob and a glaze rough spot to the handle.

 

References:

Kroes 2007, pp.177-179, cat.no. 89 & 90.

www.masterart.com

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2012191
2012191

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Armorial - Dutch - Page 1

 

Object 2012191

 

Teacup and saucer

 

China

 

c.1735-38

 

Height of teacup 29 mm (1.14 inch), diameter of rim 56 mm (2.20 inch), diameter of footring 25 mm (0.98 inch), weight 21 grams (0.74 ounce (oz.))

Height of saucer 18 mm (0.70 inch), diameter of rim 88 mm (3.46 inch), diameter of footring 50 mm (1.97 inch), weight 23 grams (0.81 ounce (oz.))

 

Teacup and saucer on footrings, sixfold scalloped rims. Decorated in various overglaze black, gold, blue and green enamels, iron-red and gold with a coat of arms round the rim a lozenge diaper border in gold on a rouge de fer ground with a flowerbud-like or early spearhead border. On the reverse rim three groups of flower sprays with antiquities and round the rim a regular spearhead motif border. The teacup is decorated en suite.

 

The coat of arms shows: 

Sable, on a chevron d’or three azure fleur-de-lys, above with two severed lion’s heads with red tongues facing each other and below a lion’s head facing forward with a ring in its mouth, all in gold. Two leopards as shield bearers, holding a crown. (in Dutch: in zwart een lage keper beladen met drie blauwe lelies, boven vergezeld van twee toegewende afgerukte leeuwenkoppen, rood getongd en beneden van een aanziende leeuwenkop, rood getongd, alles goud)

 

The Dutch coat of arms on this teacup and saucer are unidentified and unrecorded in literature (including J. Kroes’ Dutch armorial porcelain) until now. They belong to the ‘De la Faille’ family (also written: del la/della Faille).  

 

FailledellatekeningvdSteur 

 

Coat of arms de la /del la/della Faille family, drawing, HxW…inch,138 mm (4.43 inch) x 126 mm (4.96 inch) © Antiquariaat /antiquarian bookshop Van der Steur, Haarlem, the Netherlands.

 

The De la Faille family has its origin in Antwerp and already traded on the Levant in 1540, with some of its family members taking up residence in Venice. The family can still be found in Belgium today (until 1831 the southern part of the Netherlands) and belongs to the Belgian nobility.  

The family split when after the fall of the city of Antwerp in 1585 some Protestant members emigrated to the Netherlands, more precise to Haarlem, Dordrecht and Leiden. In the late 17th century the family also took residence in the city of Delft. 

Because of their prominence in Delft and Delft being one of the VOC Chambers, further research was done on these members of the De la Faille family. 

 

The Delft connection starts with Bernardus de la Faille, who resided in The Hague (Dutch: Den Haag) nearby Delft; he was an accountant for the Stadtholder Maurice of Orange. He married Elisabeth Camerling from Delft in 1618.

 

His son, Johan del la Faille (1628-1713) already became a member of the City Council (Dutch: vroedschap) in Delft. As a supporter of stadtholder William III of Orange, he was appointed in 1672, the Year of Disaster after the First Stadtholderless Period, when the Dutch Republic was under threat of an invasion by the troops of King Louis XIV of France. He was also bailiff (Dutch: Schout) in Delft between 1680 and 1713. Johan de la Faille owned a famous curiosity cabinet, which was started by his grandfather and father, mainly consisting of sea shells as well as birds, Roman coins and medals, tapestries and paintings and interestingly also porcelains.

 

FailleJohanportret

 

Portrait of Johan de la Faille(1628-1713), 1680s, member of the City Council (vroedschap) and Bailiff (schout) of Delft, Oil on copper, H x W 6 1/4 x 12 inch (41.3 x 30.5 cm),Jan Verkolje, signed on the butt of the rifle: Jan Verkolye 168(?)

© 2018 Wadsworth Athenaeum Museum of Art, Hartford Connecticut, US, object-id: 1982.36

  

Johan de la Faille married on 28th of January 1671 with Anna Margaretha Delff (1647–1715). The couple had four children: Johan Bernard, Cornelis, Abraham and Elisabeth.

 

His second son Cornelis (1674-1730) was the centre of an interesting story. In 1730 he became involved in the so-called ‘Sodomite Hysteria’ (Dutch: Sodomietenhysterie) in the Netherlands. Cornelis was homosexual, but in the elite circles of the time this was usually handled reasonably open-minded.

In 1730 however the Dutch Republic had just experienced an epizootic disease in its cattle population, while its dikes were threatened by shipworm. These circumstances had readied the minds of the Dutch for moral panics fuelled by Protestant preachers, because they saw this as evidence of God's wrath against homosexuals. This dangerous mind-set and an already present aversion against the clique of city rulers was pretty suddenly canalized in a violent outbreak of hate against homosexuals, which started in the city of Utrecht, after which a nationwide wave of prosecutions ensued. In a series of pamphlets and veil gossip a whole network of homosexual members of city councils across several Dutch cities, including the locations of the public houses they met, was outed and vilified. The government, pressured by the public outrage, now felt compelled to act.

Dozens of men were condemned to the gallows or drowned, and their remains were burned or casted into the sea, which attests to the dangerous atmosphere at the time. 

 

Sodomietenvervolging

 

Engraving, 180 mm (7.09 inch) x 280 mm (11.02 inch), 1730; Allegory, showing Justice in the centre, ‘glorified by the discovery of …severe Sin.’ [Dutch: ‘De geregtigheid verheerlijkt door het ontdekken der hooggaande zonde’].To the left an angel holding a banner showing the Biblical text ‘Men desisting from natural relations with women,’ Romans 1:27 [Dutch: ‘Mannen nalatende het gebruik der vrouwen’, Romeinen 1:27]. Time lifts the curtain to reveal homosexual gentlemen; the four chained women to their right represent Fornication, Lust, Avarice and Wantonness. On the background the cities of Sodom and Gomorra burning. 

© National Prison Museum, Veenhuizen, the Netherlands, inv. nr. 05417645X

 

In Delft three ‘suspects’ were arrested. Fortunately, prime suspect Cornelis de la Faille had fled town just in time. He was convicted in absentia and all his possessions, including a large townhouse (Oude Delft 124), inherited from his mother, were confiscated.  

Cornelis died in 1730 of natural causes; the family de la Faille however did not accept Cornelis’ conviction and started a trial at the High Court of Holland to regain their family possessions. When the homophobia finally died down the family won the court proceedings arguing that it was  first and foremost a family affair in which the courts had no say at all, an argument which the court, consisting of fellow city elite members, was highly sensitive of. 

 

Cornelis died in 1730 and his brothers Johan Bernard and Abraham both in 1729, which makes it unlikely any of them ordered this tea-and coffee set with their coat of arms, because this cup and saucer can actually be dated quite precisely due to the interesting fact that - apart from the coat of arms - it is identical  to cups and saucers from the well-known Valckenier armorial tea- and coffee service, ordered by governor-general Adriaan Valckenier, dated 1735-38.

 

The back and sides of a Valckenier teacup and saucer, which further confirms that it is completely identical with de la Faille, are never shown, therefore an few rare pictures are also included in this description.

It is because of these never visible verte enamels in this part of the decoration, this Valckenier tea- and coffee service has sometimes been described in the past as ‘famille verte’ [Corbeiller 1974, p.88].

 

Kop_en_schotel_2Kopje_gelobd_zijkant1 Schoteltje_achter

 

Teacup and saucer with the arms of Valckenier, c. 1735-38, cup H.3,7 cm (inch),D. 6,7 cm(inch), saucer 10,7 cm (inch), Private Collection, the Netherlands. (not included in this sale)

 

For more background information about this Valckenier tea-and coffee set, please see:

For more information about other Valckenier armorial services in general, please see:

The similarity with Valckenier of course begs the question whether there could be any connection between the two families. Further research revealed no family connection (e.g. through marriage). However, it became clear that at the same time Adriaan Valckenier was in Batavia, there were also at least two members of the De la Faille family present as part of the government of the Dutch Indies, working directly with him.

 

In 1701 Cornelis’ elder brother Johan Bernard (1672-1729) married with Anna Catharina van Heemskerck (1676-1723); the couple had no less than 8 children. One of Johan Bernard’s children was Bernard Jacob de la Faille (1709-1746), who went to Batavia in 1731 aboard the VOC ship ‘Spiering’ as a member of the Council of Justice (Dutch: Raad van Justitie) in Batavia [source: openarch.nl] He married Marie Gosewine in 1732. 

 

Another was Mr. Cornelis Coenraad de la Faille (1710-1744), merchant and First Keeper of the Storage Rooms (Dutch: koopman en dispensier Provisiekamer) in Batavia in 1736. Presumably around that same time he married Magdalena Clara van Schagen, the daughter of Joan Paul van Schagen (1689-1746), who became director-general of the Indies in 1737, at the same time Adriaan Valckenier became governor-general. The couple had two daughters. 

[source: Wijnaendts van Resandt, W., De gezaghebbers der Oost-Indische Compagnie op hare buiten-comptoiren in Azië, Amsterdam 1944, pp. 68-69] 

 

Both De la Faille brothers could have ordered armorial porcelain because of their significant VOC functions in Batavia. The most likely of the two in this case however would be Cornelis Coenraad, because of his stronger connection to Adriaan Valckenier through his spouse whose father worked directly alongside Valckenier. Another indication could be the oval shape of the shield, which usually (although not exclusively) points to a married woman. Perhaps he ordered this armorial tea service when he married Magadalena van Schagen? 

 

All in all, this hereto unknown Dutch armorial cup and saucer provides a fascinating view not only into the De la Faille family history, but also into Dutch and Batavian history and the high society of the time.

 

Condition teacup: some frits and fleabites to the rim

Condition saucer: a short hairline to the rim. 

 

References:

Bos, G., Naamboekje van de wel. ed. heeren der Hooge Indische Regeeringe, gequalificeerde persoonen, enz. en bedienden op Batavia: mitsgaders de respective gouverneurs, directeurs, commandeurs en opperhoofden op de buiten comptoiren van Nederl. India, zoo als dezelve in wezen zyn bevonden in January ... : als meede alle de Gouverneurs Generaal zedert het jaar 1610 : nevens de hooge en mindere collegien en bedienden op Suriname, Volume 10, Amsterdam 1739, p. 15:

Ferwerda, A., Nederlandsch geslacht-stam-en wapen-boek,: waarin voorkomen de voornaamste adelyke en aanzienlyke familiën in de zeven vereenigde provinciën; opgemaakt uit oude en echte gedenkstukken, Amsterdam 1785, vol. 1, pp.37-46:

De Nederlandsche Leeuw, jaargang 15 (1897), p. 191

Corbeiller 1974, pp. 86-88, no. 34, figs. 46-47

Kroes 2007, cat. 32 t/m 36, cat. 78,cat. 96 t/m 101

Wijnaendts van Resandt 1944, pp. 68-69

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2012012
2012012

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Armorial - Dutch - Page 1

 

Object 2012012

 

Dish

 

China

 

c.1735-38

 

Height 31 mm (1.22 inch), diameter of rim 255 mm (10.04 inch), diameter of footring 132 mm (5.20 inch), weight 498 grams (17.57 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. Decorated in various overglaze enamels, iron-red, gold and encre de Chine with a coat of arms with falcon crest, helm and mantling. On the rim three sprays of flowering boughs and a small scalloped border. The reverse is undecorated.

 

The arms are those of the influential Valckenier family of Amsterdam: On a gold background a blue pale charged with a white and black (silver) branch with two red crescents on either side. The crest is a rising pink falcon with a red hood.

 

This plate is part of a dinner service ordered by Adriaan Valckenier (1695-1751), governor-general of the Dutch East Indies. It contains a large number of (soup) plates and dishes of varying sizes, from 225 mm (8.86 inch) to 440 mm (17.32 inch). This dinner service also comprises of octagonal trencher salts, sauce boats and – quite exceptionally - at least 15 pear shaped beer jugs with lids.

 

 

Covered beer jug with arms of Valckenier, c. 1735-38, H. 220 mm (8.66 inch), Thumb rest Hop cone

original bronze fittings on handle and lid, thumb rest in the shape of a hop cone, thus providing a clear clue as to its intended use; Collection Valckenier Kips, the Netherlands. (not included in this sale)

 

For identical dishes with the Valckenier coat of arms, please see:

Other Imari Valckenier porcelain with almost identical decoration is recorded, such as large beaker vases (420 mm (16.54 inch)) and tea, coffee and chocolate services.

 

Beside this particular service there are other services bearing the Valckenier arms, such as the one with town views en grisaille on the border, which is probably the best known. Furthermore, there exists an underglaze blue variety, for which Adriaan’s son Adriaan Isaac later ordered some additional pieces, and a rare tea and coffee service in famille rose enamels. 

Beside Chinese armorial porcelain, there are also several Japanese jugs with the Valckenier arms and sometimes silver lids, dated c.1663, thus belonging to the earliest recorded Japanese armorial porcelain in the Netherlands. These jugs are probably ordered by Adriaan’s grandfather Gillis (1629-1681), 9 times burgomaster of Amsterdam and Bewindhebber of the VOC. There is also a beautiful Japanese lacquer dish with the Valckenier arms in the collection of the Rijksmuseum.

 

 

Japanese lacquer dish with the Valckenier arms, c. 1665-1690, Ø 530 mm (20.87 inch), © Rijksmuseum Amsterdam,  objectnr. BK-1994-30. (not included in this sale)

 

Adriaan Valckenier (*6-6-1695 - †20-6-1751) went to the Dutch East Indies when he was 19 years old and reached Batavia in 1715. In 1725 he marries Johanna Alida Tolling, daughter from a member of the Council of the Indies. This advantageous marriage progressed his career further, he soon became Opperkoopman in 1726 and Boekhouder-Generaal and schepen of Batavia in 1727. In 1728 his daughter Susanna Catharina was born, his wife died a year later while in labour from twins.

In 1730 he remarried Susanna Christina Massis, daughter of a Councilor of Justice and widow of another high-ranking VOC official. In 1731 his son Adriaan Isaac was born. In 1734 he became First Councillor and Director-General, usually the forerunner post for governor-general. Eventually he had to wait because first Abraham Patras became governor-general after the Council of the Indies could not agree and decided to draw lots.

 

 

Oil painting, 1410 mm (55.5 inch) x 1600 mm (63.0 inch)., c.1737, Nicolaas Verkolje; Adriaan Valckenier (1695-1751) with his second wife Susanna Christina Massis (1704-1737) and his two children Susanna Catharina Valckenier (1728-1743) and Adriaan Isaac Valckenier (1731-1784), Private Collection, the Netherlands. (not included in this sale)

 

Finally, in 1737 Adriaan was appointed governor-general. In the same year, he sent his son and daughter to the Netherlands, because his second wife Susanna also died earlier that year. In all likelihood, they already took some armorial porcelain with them.

Adriaan was eager to follow them home and had already requested to be released of his post. In 1738 the Heeren XVII confirmed both his post and permission to return to the Netherlands at his own leisure. So, contrary to popular belief, he already received an honourable discharge long before the Chinese massacre occurred in 1740. This is confirmed by correspondence he received from family and friends congratulating him with his promotion but also with the permission to return home whenever he was ready:”…UwEd. te feliciteren met de confirmatie en bevestiginge in dat Hoogwigtig Ampt, en met eener permissie om naar UwHoogEdGestr. welgevallen te blijven of te repatrieeren zonder naader ordre hetwelk ons doet hopen van UHoogEdelgestr. in korte jaeren alhier te lande te sal moogen opwagten.“ (“Your Excellency, congratulations with the confirmation of that considerable office and with the permission to stay or repatriate at your own discretion, which gives us hope that we will be awaiting Your Excellency in this country within a couple of years.”)[National Archives of the Netherlands, the Hague, inv.nr. 1.10.05.05, coll. Valckenier, nr. 1, letter from Adriaan’s godchild Clara Jacoba van Holst, dated 22-12-1738]

 

Chinese massacre Batavia 1740

 

From about 1725 onwards the export of sugar came to a standstill, because the market got saturated. This meant a dramatic decline in work and trade for the Chinese merchants as well as the labourers on the sugar plantations around Batavia. However, new Chinese immigrants kept coming over every year and slowly the situation became untenable and tense. Tensions grew even more as the colonial government attempted to restrict Chinese immigration by implementing deportations from unemployed labourers to Ceylon and South Africa. There were rumours that deportees were not taken to their destinations but were thrown overboard once out of sight of Java and in some accounts, they died when rioting on the ships. This caused unrest among the remaining Chinese, leading many Chinese workers to desert their jobs. Gangs of Chinese formed and started to attack Batavia in June 1740. The VOC was barely able to resist these attacks. On 7 October, hundreds of ethnic Chinese, many of them sugar mill workers, killed 50 Dutch soldiers outside the city walls of Batavia. The Raad van Indië was afraid that the large groups of Chinese living in Batavia would soon join the revolt, leading Dutch troops to confiscate all weapons from the Chinese populace and to place the Chinese under a curfew. Later on, the government decided to take every suspicious Chinese into custody to prevent further uprising. This soon got out of hand and two days later, rumours of Chinese atrocities led other Batavian ethnic groups to burn Chinese houses along the Besar Stream and Dutch soldiers to fire cannon at Chinese homes. The violence soon spread further throughout Batavia, killing more Chinese. Although Adriaan Valckenier declared an amnesty on 11 October, gangs of irregulars continued to hunt and kill Chinese until 22 October, when the governor-general called more forcefully for a cessation of hostilities. In a lengthy letter in which he blamed the unrest entirely on the Chinese rebels, Valckenier offered an amnesty to all Chinese, except for the leaders of the unrest, on whose heads he placed a bounty of up to 500 rijksdaalders. It is estimated that between 5000 and 10000 Chinese were killed. The Kali Besar river in nowadays Jakarta is still called Hongqi by the Chinese, a name stemming from the massacre in 1740 and meaning Red River.

 

 

Etching, 1740, Adolf van der Laan, ‘de Schrikkelyke Slagting der Chinezen, na de Ontdekking van hun Verraad’ or “The horribel massacre of the Chinese after the discovery of their treason’, © Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, objectnr. RP-P-OB-75.355

 

After the Chinese revolt the already cumbersome relations between Adriaan Valckenier and the Raad van Indië reached an absolute low. Especially Valckenier and his sworn enemy Van Imhoff had several confrontations about who was responsible for the massacre. Vermeulen suggested that the tension between the two colonial factions played a major role in the ensuing massacre [Vermeulen, Johannes Theodorus. De Chineezen te Batavia en de troebelen van 1740 (The Chinese of Batavia and the Troubles of 1740) Proefschrift (thesis), University of Leiden, 1938]. Eventually this lead to the arrest of Van Imhoff and two of his supporters, Council members Elias Haese and Isaac van Schinnen. Valckenier sent the men back to the Netherlands, each on a separate ship. 

 

 

Etching, 1793, The arrest of the Council members Van Imhoff, Haese en van Schinnen in 1740, Reinier Vinkeles after a drawing by Jacobus Buys,from: Jacobus Kok, Vaderlandsch Woordenboek, Johannes Allart, Amsterdam 1785-1799, 35 delen, dl. 29, pl. 3., © Rijksmuseum Amsterdam objectnr. RP-P-OB-75.360

 

This wasn’t a very smart move because Van Imhoff upon his return to Amsterdam seized the opportunity to convince the Heeren XVII that he was wronged and that Adriaan Valckenier was solely to blame for what happened. Adriaan Valckenier meanwhile was heading home on board the ‘Amsterdam’ in 1741 as Admiral of the Return Fleet, but was arrested at the Cape and sent back to Batavia awaiting his trial. The East Indiaman the ‘Amsterdam’ continued his voyage but sunk in a storm near the Shetland Islands, along with about 15 armorial services (about 2,377 pieces) as well as other porcelain and many exotic treasures. 

When Valckenier arrived in Batavia on the 2nd of November 1742, he was escorted from the ship ‘by “een Sergeant, twee Corporaals en 24 Soldaten” and transported to “de ‘punt Robijn’, sonder acces van vrienden, excepto den heer Crul, de weduwe Massis en den oud-Secretaris Fruynink. [“A sergeant, two corporals and 24 soldiers”…”to fortress Robijn, without being allowed access by any friends, except for mr. Crul, the widow Massis and former secretary Fruynink”; Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia, file 997, folios 1185-1211]

 

Meanwhile, Van Imhoff was sent back to Batavia as the new governor-general of the Dutch East Indies. He arrived on 26 May 1743. Valckenier was subsequently charged with the death penalty and forfeiture of all his possessions. Van Imhoff even lodged a personal claim of 125.000 rijksdaalders, demonstrating his questionable personal involvement in the proceedings. In March 1744 Adriaan was convicted and condemned to death, and all his belongings were confiscated.

However, in December 1744 the trial was reopened when Adriaan Valckenier gave a lengthy statement to defend himself. He had written 12.233 articles in his defence until pencil and paper were taken from him [Valckenier’s articles can still be found in the City Archive of Amsterdam, inv.nr. 30491, nr.974]

Valckenier also asked for more evidence from the Netherlands, but particularly Van Imhoff did everything in his power to delay the proceedings.  

Adriaan eventually died in his prison cell on 20th of June 1751, before the investigation was completed, having never seen his beloved children and family again. He was placed in the burial chamber of his father-in-law Isaac Massis. His death penalty was rescinded posthumously in 1755. 

The investigation and trial of Adriaan Valckenier are often characterised as unfair, fuelled by popular outrage in the Netherlands he was made a scapegoat, while others equally involved such as Van Imhoff stayed in the clear. Arguably this was officially recognised because in 1760 Valckenier's son, Adriaan Isaac Valckenier, received reparations totalling 725,000 gulden, an enormous sum of money at the time. 

Politics aside, what remains of Adriaan Valckenier is an impressive legacy of beautiful armorial porcelain and many other artefacts, of which this plate is a beautiful example.  

  

Condition: a hairline to the rim, very slight wear to the enamels 

 

References:

 

Vries 1923, p.30-31

Goldsmith Phillips 1956, p. 92 & p. 95, pl. 22

Corbeiller 1974, pp. 86-88, no. 34, figs. 46-47

Hervouët & Bruneau 1986, nr. 14.5

Ayers, Impey & Mallet 1990, cat. 41

Howard 1994, cat. 61 & cat. 62, cat. 247

Campen & Jörg 1997, cat. 1014

Jörg & Van Campen 1997, cat. 355

Jörg 1989/2, cat. 101

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1989, pp. 231-232

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 292

Fuchs & Howard 2005, cat.25

Kroes 2007, cat. 32 t/m 36, cat. 78,cat. 96 t/m 101

New York 2008, lot 370

Kerr 2011, nr. 5

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011521
2011521

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Object 2011521

 

Dish

 

China

 

1740-1743

 

Height 24 mm (0.94 inch), diameter of rim 227 mm (8.93 inch), diameter of footring 123 mm (4.84 inch), weight 316 grams (11.15 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat, scalloped underglaze brown-edged (jia mangkou) rim. Polychrome decorated in pink, iron-red, gold, encre de Chine and blue or turquoise and brown overglaze enamels. Decorated in the centre with an asymmetrical shield: on a blue ground two red and gold fish one above the other, with three six-pointed stars; the crest a rampant bear with collar beneath an arch of twelve gold stars. The shield is surrounded by an enamelled cartouche with typical rococo ornaments of scrolls, feathering, branches and so on, in blue, iron-red and gold. On the sides a spearhead border and on the rim a shell, cornucopia and lattice ornaments border of European origin. The reverse is undecorated. (Kroes 2007, p.324)

 

Kroes states that traditionally it was believed these arms belonged to the Snoeck family from Amsterdam, but as it is pointed out in an article of 1997, they are in fact those of the Guillot family from Amsterdam. The first to attribute these plates to the Snoeck family was Goldsmith Phillips in 1956. His identification was based on Rietstap's Armorial Général. However, the Snoeck arms have two gnarled sticks between three stars, the sticks being misinterpreted by Rietstap as fish. Members of the Guillot family bore these arms from the early 1740's. As far as we know, only one member of the Guillot family went to the East Indies, making his fortune there, and must therefore be the one who ordered this beautiful armorial service. This was Elias Guillot (born Bordeaux, c.1695; died Batavia, 28 January 1743) Elias Guillot went to the Indies in 1714 where he started as a junior merchant and master of the warehouse in Masulipatnam (India) in 1715. In 1730 he was appointed senior merchant and chief of settlement of northern Coromandel, followed by his promotion to governor of Coromandel in 1733 (to 1737). In 1737 he moved to Batavia where he became extraordinary councillor of the Indies. This promotion could have prompted the order for this service. Shortly before he died in 1743 Elia Guillot became first councillor and director-general of the Indies (Kroes 2007, pp.324-325)

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see:

There is also another dinner service with the same arms but a different rim decoration. There are probably two varieties of this replacement service (which could also very well have been made just for decoration only) both made in the 19th century an enamelled in blue, iron-red and gold. The first  being a 19th century Japanese porcelain version that according to Howard and Ayers might even be Dutch decorated. (Howard & Ayers 1978, vol. 2, p.397) Please see:

The second was produced by Samson in Paris in the second half of the 19th century. (Kroes 2007, p.325) Please see;

The dish's rather striking border design was inspired by patterns from a European rococo prototype. Although the design's specific origin is not presently known, Howard & Ayers suggest that it is possible that it originated with one of those artists who worked with Cornelis Pronk and were employed to find or invent suitable designs for the Dutch market.

 

Another possibility is that it has been copied from a Delft original. However the closest model for this border is found on faience from northern France at Rouen and Sinceny. Called décor à la corne, it incorporated the cornucopia and outsized shell motifs. 

 

On Chinese export porcelain only two other examples of this border are known. The first is an identically shaped and polychrome decorated version depicting roosters amidst peonies and pierced rockwork. Please see;

The second is a dinner service in underglaze-blue made probably for the Dutch market and decorated with scenes of the cultivation and marketing of tea. All dishes are numbered on the reverse although there are occasional examples of the same scene with different numbers. Howard states that a set of twenty-four of these dishes is known in Holland. (Howard 1994, p.84 

 

For the numbered dinner service decorated in underglaze blue on Chinese export porcelain with scenes of the cultivation and marketing of tea, please see:

For different varieties of the shell, cornucopia and lattice ornaments border design on Japanese export porcelain. Please see:

(sources: Howard & Ayers 1978, vol. 2, p.397), (Howard 1994, p.84), (Sargent 2012, p.138 & p.249)

 

This exceptional dish is beside beautiful also fascinating because of the many interesting stories and viewpoints on the history of Chinese export porcelain that can be connected with it.

 

Condition: Wear to the gold decoration, a firing flaw to the inner footring, two fleabites and a frit to the rim.

 

References:

Ottema 1943, cat. 216

Goldsmith Phillips 1956, p.71, Plate 5

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 60

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1972, p.183, cat. 138

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1974, cat. 32

Howard & Ayers 1978, vol. 1, cat 213 & 213a, vol. 2, cat. 393 & 394

Boulay 1984, pp.200-2001, cat. 9

Howard 1994, cat. 69

Jörg 1999, cat. 98

Mudge 2000, cat. 202

New York 2000, lot 192 & 259

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 326a/b/c & 327

Kroes 2007, p.32, XXXI & cat.no. 242a/b/c.

Sargent 2012, p.183 & cat. 46 & 124

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011087
2011087

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Object 2011087

 

Teacup and saucer

 

China

 

c.1765

 

Height of teacup 44 mm (1.73 inch), diameter of rim 75 mm (2.95 inch), diameter of footring 35 mm (1.78 inch), weight 45 grams (1.59 ounce (oz.))

Height of saucer 28 mm (1.10 inch), diameter of rim 135 mm (5.31 inch), diameter of footring 82 mm (3.23 inch), weight 99 grams (3.49 ounce (oz.))

 

Exhibited: The World at Home: Asian porcelain and Delft pottery held from 17 June 2017 to 10 March 2019 at the Groninger Museum, The Netherlands.

 

Teacup and saucer on footrings, slightly everted rims. Decorated in various overglaze enamels, iron-red, black and gold with a coat of arms surrounded by four large and four small flower sprays in European style. Round the rims a chain-pattern border. The teacup is decorated en suite.

 

The coat of arms show: on a gold background a red arched bend; the crest a gold coronet with above an eagle's claw upside down. The mantling comprises scrolling leaves in red and grisaille. These are the arms of "Van der Burch" from Delft and other major Dutch cities. The "Van der Burch" family is a very ancient one with its genealogy reaching back to the mid-14th century. 

 

This teacup and saucer were part of a tea service that can be dated to the mid-1760s. At least seven people could have commissioned it, however the most likely is Frans Jansz. van der Burch (1718-1775). He was the city councillor of Delft from 1748 and he became director of the Dutch East India Company, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC) in 1765. This event in particular might have induced him to order both a dinner and tea service with his family arms. Kroes mentions that of this dinner service only an oval dinner platter is known and from the tea service only a tea caddy without cover is known. (Kroes 2007, p.363 & p.453)

 

Recently I have discovered and was happy to acquire seven teacups, two saucers, a bowl and a patty pan from this same tea service.

 

In the collection of the Groninger Museum is a metal tobacco box made in Japan in the mid-18th century, with the same coat of arms of the Van der Burch family and an inscription: "FRANC(O) REYERSZ VANDER BURCH". In literature the word Franc(o) has been wrongly interpreted as "Sibrant", please see the last picture.

 

For an oval platter and a tea-caddy, with identically armorial design, please see:

For the metal tobacco box in the collection of the Groninger Museum made in Japan in the mid-18th century, with the same coat of arms of the Van der Burch family and an inscription: "FRANC(O) REYERSZ VANDER BURCH", please see:

Condition teacup: Restored.

Condition saucer: Restored.

 

Reference:

Kroes 2007, cat.no. 281a, cat.no. 281 & cat.no. 376

 

Donated to the collection Oriental ceramics of the Groninger Museum, Groningen, The Netherlands.

 

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2010192A & 2010192B
2010192A & 2010192B

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Objects 2010192A and 2010192B

 

Two saucers

 

China

 

c.1767

 

Height 38 mm (1.49 inch), diameter of rim 140 mm (5.51 inch), diameter of footring 75 mm (2.95 inch)

 

Two saucers on footrings, moulded sides and scalloped rims. Decorated in various overglaze enamels with two coats of arms accolée, on the rim a continuing flowering garland. The reverses are undecorated. 

 

The arms are those of the "Van Altena" family of Tietjerksteradeel and the "Pierson" family of The Hague.

 

These saucers were part of a coffee and tea service made for Hector Livius van Altena (1741-1806) and Albertina Pierson (1745-1803) on behalf of their marriage on may 23, 1768 in Tietjerk, Friesland, The Netherlands. (Kroes 2007, pp.373-375)

 

For identically decorated objects, please see:

Condition: Both restored.

 

References:

Amsterdam 2006, lot 1094

Kroes 2007, cat. no. 292

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011983
2011983

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Object 2011983

 

Teacup

 

China

 

c.1778

 

Height 45 mm (1.77 inch), diameter of rim 77 mm (3.03 inch), diameter of footring 35 mm (1.38 inch), weight 53 grams (1.87 ounce (oz.))

 

Teacup on a footring with a straight rim. Polychrome decorated in various overglaze enamels with two coats of arms accollé standing on a cloud flanked by a ship’s mast with the Dutch flag (colours reversed), an anchor, measuring instruments, a map and writing implements. Inscribed on the banderol below:  17 P:SIX C:COR:ANDRIESSEN 78. On the sides four single ‘German’ flowers, round the inner rim a saw-tooth border.

 

Maritime and naval emblems and instruments were popular among the Dutch (VOC) mariners who commissioned armorial porcelain. Several of them had one or more ships with the Dutch tricolour, a chart, anchor, measurement stick, sextant and so on painted along with their arms. Services inscribed with a date are an interesting category of armorial porcelain and there are at least 27. Armorial porcelain with dates was made during the whole of the 18th century, the first one was De Vassy dated 1702 and the last Arkenbout inscribed with the year 1792. (Kroes 2007, p. 64/65 & p. 69)

 

The arms are those of the Dutch Six and Andriessen families, both of Middelburg. After Amsterdam Middelburg was the second most important VOC Chamber. The Heeren XVII  alternately gathered in both cities, after six years in Amsterdam they met for two years in Middelburg.

 

 

This service was made for Pieter Six (died 1784) and his wife Christina Cornelia Andriessen (c.1754-1834). It was presumably made soon after their marriage in 1778, probably in 1779 when Pieter Six was in the East Indies himself for the fourth time in the service of the VOC. He died on his fifth voyage to the East Indies, while he was master of the East Indiaman Ouwerkerk, four days before the ship arrived at Batavia. Though a family connection with the well-known noble Six family of Amsterdam is likely, this has not been established yet. Pieter Six’s wife Christina Cornelia Andriessen belonged to a family of Flemish origin, from about 1670 living in Middelburg. Several of them were minister of the Dutch Reformed Church and alderman.

 

A cup and saucer with an identical armorial design can be found in the collection of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, please see: http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.4167.

 

It was part of the bequest of J.G.A.N De Vries (1853-1925). He was a well-to-do individual who, in addition to collecting Chinese and European porcelain of the 18th century, had devoted himself in particular to amassing Chinese porcelain with coats of arms and other decorations after Western prints. The well-known Dutch heraldic expert R.T. Muschart (1873-1955) provided him with identifications of the coats of arms and also used  the data from the porcelain for his own research. Nearly all the Dutch armorial porcelain in the Rijksmuseum’s collection was part of the De Vries bequest. He was also author of one of the earliest publications on Chinese porcelain in the Netherlands. (Vries 1923)

 

Kroes clearly states that the Six-Andriessen cup and saucer in the Rijksmuseum are the only documented pieces of a tea service so far. This chocolate cup can therefore be considered very rare. 

 

For the identically decorated cup and saucer, please see:

Condition: Wear to the decoration, two fleabites, two (restored) frits and two hairlines to the rim. A shallow frit to the footring.

 

References:

Vries 1923

Jörg & Van Campen 1997, p.18, cat. 215 & cat. 372

Kroes 2007, pp.64-65, 69, 435-436, 613, cat. no. 357

http://hdl.handle.net/10934/RM0001.COLLECT.4167

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011546
2011546

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Armorial - Dutch - Page 1

 

Objects 2011546

 

Saucer

 

China

 

1790-1795

 

Height 33 mm (1.49 inch), diameter of rim 142 mm (5.51 inch), diameter of footring 85 mm (2.95 inch), weight 130 grams (4.59 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, straight rim. Decorated in various overglaze enamels, iron red, black and gold with a coat of arms, on the sides four flower sprays and on the rim a border with astrixes in gold on a blue enamel ground. The reverse is undecorated.

 

These coat of arms: on a white background a red bar charged with three white (silver) saltires, with three birds looking to the sinister, although with the birds looking at the opposite direction, were borne by two Dutch families, Verlouw and Froon. Both from Schiedam (the Netherlands). On the sides four groups of flowering branches and on the rim a blue border with stars in gold. Jan Verlouw (1749-1805) the eldest son of Daniël Verlou(w) (1724-1789?) and Maggeltie Helloe (Hellu) (1724-) seems most likely to have commissioned this armorial porcelain made in the early 1790s. Jan Verlouw was a councillor and alderman of the city of Schiedam. He married twice, first on 6 November 1771 Agata van Essen (1747-1784) and secondly, on 5 August 1788 Catharina van Holst (1753-1802. He outlived them both. His first wife gave birth to five children and his second wife had one daughter. Two daughters and two sons grew up to maturity. His eldest son Hendricus Verlouw (1774-1800) was a town physician of Schiedam. His youngest son, Daniël Verlouw (1779-1856) who married his older brothers widow became councillor and alderman of Schiedam. After the death of Daniël's youngest son, Jean Philippe (1809-1872), this branch became extinct in 1872. (Kroes 2007, pp.498-499)

 

Only a 13-piece tea service with this armorial design is known comprising of a rectangular tea caddy; a six-lobed teapot stand; a slop bowl; two coffee cups with moulded and s-shaped handle; two tea cups; five saucers (identical to the saucer offered) and one larger saucer. Additionally one tea bowl appeared on the English market in the early 21st century. 

 

For an identically decorated saucer, please see:

Condition: Three tiny frits, two small and shallow chips and a short hairline to the rim. 

 

Reference:

Kroes 2007, cat. no. 420

 

Price: Sold.

 

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Sold Armorial - British

 

2011908
2011908

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Object 2011908

 

Dish

 

China

 

c.1760 

 

Height 27 mm (1.06 inch), diameter of rim 234 mm (9.21 inch), diameter of footring 137 mm (5.39 inch), weight 377 grams (13.30 ounce (oz.))

 

Octagonal dish on footring, flat rim with indented corners. Polychrome decorated in various overglaze enamels and gold with a coat of arms surrounded by scattered flower sprays. On the rim flower festoons tied with bows. At the top an eagle displayed. The reverse is undecorated.

 

The arms are those of Mawbey impaling Pratt. Underneath the arms scrolls with the motto: “auriga, virtutum, prudentia.” On the rim at the top the family crest, an eagle displayed. 

 

Joseph Mawbey was born on 2 December 1730, the fourth son and youngest child of John Mawbey and his first wife Martha Pratt. When he was about ten years old he was taken to Surrey by his uncle, Joseph Pratt, main owner of a distillery at Vauxhall. Mawbey entered the business at the age of 17, and carried it on for many years with his brother John. On his uncle's death in 1754, Mawbey inherited property in Surrey and established himself as a landed proprietor. He became the High Sheriff of Surrey in 1757 and later on was an MP for many years.

 

In August 1760 Joseph Mawbey married Elizabeth, only surviving daughter of his cousin, Richard Pratt of Vauxhall. He bought the estate of Botleys in Chertsey, Surrey in 1763. Mawbey built a large house designed by Kenton Couse, who was remodelling 10 Downing Street at the same time.  

  

 botleys-mansion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Botleys Mansion, Chertsey, Surrey, UK (source: martinskikulis.com)

 

Mewbey was created a baronet on the 30th of July 1765. His wife Elizabeth died at Botleys, 19 August 1790, having had nine children, four of whom were then alive. Mawbey died at Botleys, 16 June 1798, and was buried in the family vault in the chancel of Chertsey Church, where his wife and several of his children had preceded him. (source: wikipedia.org)

 

 Sir Joseph Mawbey, Bart. (1730 - 1798)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Engraving of Sir Joseph Mawbey, the elder, 1st Baronet (1730 - 1798) 

 

 

 Memorial tablet for Sir Joseph Mawbey, the elder, 1st Baronet, in St Peter's, Chertsey.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Memorial tablet of Sir Joseph Mawbey in St Peter's Church, Chertsey

 

This dish was once part of a dinner service ordered around 1760 by Sir Joseph Mawbey, first Baronet of Botleys, probably on the occasion of his marriage to Elizabeth Pratt. (Goldsmith Phillips 1956, p.93)

 

For an identical dish, please see:

David Howard describes another armorial service with the arms of Mawbey impaling Pratt, a very similar decorated underglaze blue service, dated slightly later (c.1770), of which he illustrates a mug. (Howard 2003, p. 592)

 

A milk jug with the arms of Mawbey impaling Pratt was in the collection of the famous collector Frederick Arthur Crisp, please see this auction catalogue from his collection in 1923, lot 233

 

For similar milk jugs also decorated with the arms of Mawbey impaling Pratt, please see:

Condition: Wear to the gilding of the arms and some wear to the enamels. A chip and some tiny frits and fleabites to the footring and rim. An X-shaped hairline to the base.

 

References:

Goldsmith Phillips 1956, p.93 & p.107 plate 34 (right)

Howard 2003, p.592 & p.614, plate top left

martinskikulis.com

wikipedia.org

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2012215
2012215

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Armorial - British - Page 1

 

Object 2012215

 

Saucer

 

China

 

c.1740

 

Height 16 mm (0.63 inch), diameter of rim 116 mm (4.57 inch), diameter of footring 68 mm (2.68 inch), weight 52 grams (1.83 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, slightly everted rim. Decorated in various overglaze enamels and gold with the arms of Gore, Gules a fess between three crosses crosslet fitched or, impaling Azure three roach (?) argent in pale, possibly for Roach, quartering Herris (?) of Woodham Mortimer in Essex, Or on a bend gules three cinquefoils of the field. At the cavetto a spearhead border and round the rim a foliate and floral scroll border. The reverse is undecorated. (Howard 1974, p.286, cat. G1)

 

Gerard Gore was an Alderman of the city of London who died at the age of ninety-one in 1607 leaving a number of sons. From these descended the Earls of Arran created in 1762, the family of Ormsby Gore, Barons Harlech, the baronetcy of Gore-Booth, descended from Sir Booth Gore of Co. Sligro, created in 1760 and the baronetcy of Gore created in 1622 and a number of other families. It seems possible that the impaled coat is for the Irish family of Roche but the marriage is not known. A simlar decorated saucer dish is in the Clive Rouse Collection. (Howard 1974, p.286, cat. G1)

 

A special group within Chine de commande is armorial porcelain, that is pieces decorated with the coats of arms of the men who ordered them. Identification of the arms is not always easy. Either they are not known or the Chinese porcelain painter may not have used the correct colours. Coloured prints, book-plates or drawings were used as models. Even if the arms can be identified, it may not be known which member of the family placed the order. Pieces with two coats of arms, which were usually ordered as wedding gifts or for wedding anniversaries, pose a particular problem if one of the arms cannot be identified. On the other hand, when they are known, they allow dating within a fairly short period. (Jörg & Van Campen 1997, pp.299-300)

  

Condition: A few tiny frits to the rim.

 

References:

Howard 1974, p.286, cat. G1

Jörg & Van Campen 1997, pp.299-300

 

Price: Sold.

 

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Sold Pseudo-Armorial

2010367
2010367

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Pseudo-Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2010367

 

Chocolate beaker and saucer

 

China

 

c.1720-1740

 

Height of beaker 73 mm (2.87 inch), diameter of mouthrim 79 mm (3.11 inch), diameter of footring 37 mm (1.46 inch)

Height of saucer 24 mm (0.95 inch), diameter of rim 139 mm (5.47 inch), diameter of footring 75 mm (2.95 inch)

 

Chocolate beaker and saucer on footrings with straight rims (original cover is missing). Chinese Imari, decorated in underglaze blue, iron-red and gold. In the centre of the saucer a roundel filled with a single flower spray on the sides and rim flowering peonies alternating with double headed eagles. The beaker is decorated en suite

 

In 1565, the Philippine Islands were conquered by an expedition that included six Spanish Augustinian friars under the supervision of Father Andres de Urdaneta, who established several missions in the Archipelago. According to Augustinian sources, after the discovery of the Holy Child of Cebu (an image thought to be miraculous), King Philip II of Spain (1556-98), granted the privilege to the Augustinians of the Phlippine Islands to make use of his ensign, the double headed eagle from the Hapsburg in their emblem. (Welsh 2003, p.18)

 

The double headed eagle is the emblem of the Spanish Catholic Order of St. Augustine and it is very likely that this set was ordered by the Augustinian Fathers. 

 

An article in The Oriental Ceramic Society of the Philippine, June 2007 on The Pacific route of Ceramic trade: the Commercial Flow of Oriental Ceramics between Asia and Latin America by Etsuko Miyata and Risuko Yajima, focusses on their findings of the study about Chinese ceramics traded through galleons via Manila to the New World (Mexico) in the 16th-19th centuries. The research was conduted in Zócalo area, Mexico City in 2006. The excavated pieces dated from the late Jiajing period (1522-1566) to the 18th century. Amongst the 18th century objects excavated was a sherd of an overglaze bowl (read beaker) with a double headed-eagle drawn on the exterior wall. Special orders with emblems by the Portuguese Kings, nobles, and religious orders are known from the 15th century, some of which can be seen among the Portuguese collection today. This emblem probably depicts that of Hapsburg (1510-1700) or the Augustinian order, though in any case, it dates back to the early 18th century at the latest. (The Oriental Ceramic Society of the Philippines, June 2007)

 

For other objects decorated with the double headed eagle emblem of the Spanish Catholic Order of St. Augustine, please see:

Cocoa was first brought to Europe by the Spaniards from Mexico in the 1st half of the 16th century. From Spain the cocoa beans were traded to Italy and The Netherlands, First used as a medicine, later at the end of the 17th century it was consumed as a pleasure drink. (Jörg & Van Campen 1997, p.116In 1722 Father d'Entrecolles already mentioned, high chocolate cups/beakers, in his letters. 

 

From the archives of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), we know that the ordered cups/beakers had to have straight vertical walls without a flattened rim, the cup/beaker had to be 70 mm high (2.76 inch).

 

Condition

Beaker: Perfect.

Saucer: A firing flaw and three fleabites to the rim.

 

References:

Jörg & Van Campen 1997, cat. 117

Mudge 2000, cat. 5o & 52

Welsh 2003, cat. 1

The Oriental Ceramic Society of the Philippines, June 2007

 

Price: Sold.

 

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(not illustrated objects 2010556, another identically deorated chocolate beaker and saucer)

2011202
2011202

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Pseudo-Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2011202

 

Saucer

 

China

 

c.1740

 

Height 21 mm (0.82 inch), diameter of rim 116 mm (4.57 inch), diameter of footring 68 mm (2.68 inch), weight 43 grams (1.52 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, slightly everted rim. Decorated in various overglaze enamels and gold with a roundel enclosing the mirror monogram of possible the 'DOC' the Danske Ostindke Company within a rocaille mantling and below a flower wreath, the rim with a border of vine and flowers. The reverse is undecorated. 

 

Much Chinese export porcelain made for the Dutch market has a pseudo-armorial character, the most notable and largest group being monogrammed porcelain. Monograms are initials, often finely painted in the shape of a mirror monogram or cipher. A mirror monogram is a design of a monogram where the letters are reversed to make mirror images to produce an ornamental form. The word cipher is more or less synonymous with mirror monogram the with the emphasis on encrypting text with a combination of symbolic letters in an entwined weaving of letters.

Monograms and ciphers are mainly personal as opposed to coats of arms that beside by individuals can also be borne by whole families and communities. Pseudo-armorials are those emblems and signs which only resemble a coat of arm by using heraldic components such as a shield shape and/or banners, spears, flying angels etc. that surround the monogram or cipher. (Kroes 2007, p.56)

 

For an identically shaped, sized and decorated teacup and saucer, please see:

The mirror monogram on this saucer is interesting, similar monograms can be found on Danish coins (Kronet) from 1699-1730 made during the reign of the Danish/Norwegian King Frederick IV (1671-1730). In the Christie's Amsterdam auction sale catalogue 14-16 February 2016, the monogram on the Buisman teacup and saucer (lot 1096) is described as 'DOD'. The pictures of the Danish coins (Kronet) can be found on danskmoent.dk. On this website the author states that the very similar monograms 'DOC' on these coins (Kronet) are the monogram of the Danske Ostindke Company.  

 

2011202 2

 

'DOC' monogram of the Danske Ostindke Company.

 

 

 

doc munt 3

 

doc munt

 

Forside: Kronet double F4 monogram

Bagside: Kronet DOC monogram; 10 Kas under DOC

I 1729 gik det Danske Ostindiske Company bankerot og det var slut med DOC på mønterne. Den danske konge overtog kolonien.

 

Pictures and text courtesy: danskmoent.dk

 

Condition: A tiny firing flaw to the rim..

 

References:

Amsterdam 2006, lot 1094

Kroes 2007, p.56

danskmoent.dk

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2010944
2010944

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Pseudo-Armorial -  Page 1

 

Object 2010944

 

Teacup and saucer

 

China

 

1740-1750

 

Height of teacup 47 mm (1.85 inch), diameter of rim 76 mm (2.99 inch), diameter of footring 37 mm (1.46 inch)

Height of saucer 28 mm (1.10 inch), diameter of rim 120 mm (4.72 inch), diameter of footring 76 mm (2.99 inch)

 

Teacup and saucer on footrings, the cup with handle. Decorated in encre de Chine, gold and a pink-gold wash with three monogrammed ovals surmounted by a coronet surrounded by European scrollwork with hanging flowers supported by two angels. In the dexter oval a cipher "J C V E" and a cipher "F V P " at the sinister side oval, underneath both ovals a third oval with the cipher "P V P". It is, until now, unknown to who these ciphers refer.

 

Monograms and ciphers are mainly personal as opposed to coats of arms that beside by individuals can also be borne by whole families and communities. Pseudo-armorials are those emblems and signs which only resemble a coat of arm by using heraldic components such as a shield shape and/or banners, spears, flying angels etc. that surround the monogram or cipher. Chinese export porcelain decorated with three monogrammed ovals is rare. (Kroes 2007, p.56)

 

Condition:

Teacup: A hairline.

Saucer: A chip and two frits to the rim.

 

Reference:

Kroes 2007, p.56

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2010467
2010467

Sold Ceramics - Sold Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Pseudo-Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2010467

 

Milk jug

 

China

 

c.1760

 

Height with cover 115 mm (3.46 inch), diameter 69 mm (2.72 inch), diameter of mouthrim 38 mm (1.49 inch), diameter of footring 38 mm (1.49 inch)

 

Milk jug on footring, pear shaped body with handle, small triangular spout at the rim. The handle is placed opposite the spout. The cover is not matching but dates from the same period. Polychrome decorated in overglaze blue and pink enamel, iron-red, black and gold with a large (totally faded) pseudo Armorial "initials" design (only partial visible in "ghost form"), above a coronet held by two flying, clothed angels. On the rim a band of "Laub- und Bandelwerk" or foliage and scrollwork.

 

These angelic figures represent marriage and were particularly popular in Dutch Heraldry at that time, being typical for the Dutch market of Armorial porcelain. 

 

In 1722 Père d'Entrecolles reported that the Chinese were experimenting with painting in black, so far unsuccessfully. Black or schwarzlot, decoration, was also then just being developed in Europe, and in fact the German Hausmaler was putting it primarily on Chinese imported in the white, rather than on wares from the newly established Meissen factory. It must have been these hybrids that were sent back to Canton for imitation at the time of Père d'Entrecolle's letter, but the perfection of the technique and its translation into commercial export porcelain came only later, under the direct influence of the du Paquier period (1719-1744). Unique to the du Paquier factory was the Laub- und Bandelwerk border, based on two series of engravings by Paul Decker (d.1713). Continually modified and varied its essential elements were strapwork, palmettes, trelliswork cartouches, and foliate scrolls combined into a rhythmical pattern of baroque formality. Other China trade versions of the Laub- und Bandelwerk border, such as the more usual one with the addition of peacock and with panels of quilting rather than trellis- or scale work are farther removed from their Viennese factory prototypes, and are perhaps derived from Hausmaler variants. (Corbeiller 1974, pp.68-69 )

 

Monograms and ciphers are mainly personal as opposed to coats of arms that beside by individuals can also be borne by whole families and communities. Pseudo-armorials are those emblems and signs which only resemble a coat of arm by using heraldic components such as a shield shape and/or banners, spears, flying angels etc. that surround the monogram or cipher. Chinese export porcelain decorated with three monogrammed ovals is rare. (Kroes 2007, p.56)

 

For an identically decorated dish, please see:

Condition: A hairline to the rim.

 

References:

Corbeiller 1974, pp.68-69, cat. 30

Hervouët 1986, cat. 14.44

Kroes 2007, p.56 & cat. 163a

 

Price: Sold.

 

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