Pater Gratia Oriental Art

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Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century

 

Other wares

 

Page 1

The knowledge and expertise required to make porcelain was already present in Japan as far back as the early 17th century. According to legend a Korean potter discovered clay suitable for making porcelain near Arita on the island of Kyushu in the south of Japan in around 1605. Porcelain made from this clay, called shoki-Imari, was intended for the foreign market and soon acquired a surprisingly characteristic Japanese style of decoration, first with a blue underglaze decoration and later in enamel colours. The experience of the manufacturers with enamel colours turned out to be of great importance later. (source: Groninger Museum, Groningen) 

 

When Japanese potters started to make porcelain. It was inspired by underglaze blue porcelain manufactured in kilns of Southern China. By the mid-17th century, Chinese porcelain went into decline due to social unrest and accompanying dynastic change. Dutch merchants, from their base on the small island of Deshima, near Nagasaki, were permitted to trade with Japan. Responding to European demand, the Dutch encouraged the fledgling Japanese porcelain industry to fill the gap left by China.

 

The porcelain the Dutch brought to Europe in the 17th century was in most cases consciously designed to cater to western tastes. To ensure that they would find a ready market, the Dutch often made wooden or earthenware models of designs and sent those to Japan to be copied. 

 

Flasks, ewers and large dishes are examples for shapes made for the Dutch. They are painted in underglaze blue or a palette of enamels dominated by red, green and blue with flowers, figures and landscapes which would not follow traditional Japanese aesthetics. Vessels with landscape designs are often inspired by 17th century Chinese Transitional style. Plates decorated with designs organized by panels imitate the successful blue-and-white Chinese Kraak ware. To make these export wares even more attractive for the Dutch clients numbers of early Japanese export wares are painted with a stylized tulip, referring to the tulipomania, the great Dutch craze of the 1630s. (source: Keramiek Museum Princessehof, Leeuwarden)

2011501
2011501

Sold Ceramics - Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Other wares - Page 1

 

Object 2011501

 

Covered jar

 

Japan

 

1680-1700

 

Height with cover 545 mm (21.46 inch), height without cover 445 mm (17.52 inch), diameter of mouthrim 162 mm (6.38 inch), diameter of footring 170 mm (6.69 inch)

 

Tall ovoid jar on footring, short neck with a wide slightly spreading mouthrim, domed cover with flattened conical knob. Decorated in underglaze blue with three large vertical panels. In each panel a large Hó-ó bird with spread wings on rockwork surrounded by various flowering plants. Between the panels scroll work with flower heads. On the neck, the shoulder and just above the foot bands of lappets. The cover is similarly decorated with three panels, filled with flowering plants and divided by flowering scrolls. On top of the cover a chrysanthemum-flower knob.  

 

In Japan the bird on the rock, the Hó-ó, is a mythological animal and a symbol of wisdom, strength and also an inhabitant of the Buddhist Paradise. According to legend it would perch only on a kiri-twig.

The break-up of the decoration into three panels divided by patterns derives from the kraak style. (Ayers, Impey & Mallet 1990, p.107)

 

This covered jar might have originally been part of garniture consisting of three covered oviform-shaped jars and two cylindrical beaker vases with spreading mouths. They were very popular in the Netherlands and elsewhere in Europe where they were used as decorative items in the interior. Large garnitures could only be afforded by the nobility and well to do who displayed them in the representative rooms and galleries of their palaces and country houses. They were often placed on specially made pedestals or were mounted and functioned as exotic eyecatchers. Placed inside the fireplace they hid the blackened wall from view in summer and filled with sand, these jars were used as extinguishers near fire-places. The origin of the five-piece set has not been established yet but it seems logical to look to China, which influenced Japanese export wares in so many ways. Transitional pieces, including large covered jars with an enamelled decoration, reached The Netherlands in the 1640s, and clearly had a decorative function in the Dutch Interior. When Chinese production waned, the Japanese took over and from the late 17th century started to make similar jars and beakers in underglaze blue to order for the Dutch. Then, suddenly, they were no longer single objects but parts of five-piece sets. Large scale porcelain production for export was resumed in China in the early 1680s and many new shapes emerged. Apparently, the garniture set was among them. What exactly triggered the change from the single vase or beaker to a set is not known. Japanese covered jars decorated in underglaze blue usually show Chinese elements such as phoenixes, large flowering plants, rocks, and sometimes figures in a landscape setting. Most jars are globular or oviform. They reflect the relatively rare hexagonal and octagonal Chinese pieces, in particular the Transitional jars of the 1640's. The Chinese had stopped producing polygonal jars in the middle of the 17th century. This Japanese preference for any-sided pieces is also apparent in the shape of dishes, saucers and bowls made for export from the late 17th century onwards. Covers of jars are domed and often quite high. The knobs are large and either flattened, round or pear-shaped and rarely facetted as is the case with this jar It is interesting to note that the decoration on the Arita pieces does not imitate some of the specific Chinese Kangxi patterns, such as the characteristic division in bands of panels but show two or three wide panels filled with motifs taken from nature or a free-flowing composition all over the surface. Complete blue-and-white garnitures are extremely rare nowadays, and most existing single vases or jars might in fact have been part of such a set. When the five-piece sets became popular, the blue-and-white pieces were largely replaced by their polychrome (Imari) counterparts. (Hartog 1990, p.130, cat 158), (Jörg 2003/1, pp.259-260

 

These type of large covered jars may be considered as a form of Japanese 'Chinoiserie'  for the European market. In Japan larger covered jars of this kind were called chinkô tsubo (aloe jar), presumably because aromatic substances such as wood were transported in these jars by the the Dutch East India Company, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC), from South East Asia to Europe. (Ströber 2001, pp.156-157, cat. 69)

  

For identically shaped and similarly decorated covered jars, please see:

Condition:

Jar: A firing flaw to the inner footring and two restored spots to the mouthrim, one with a connected hairline.

Cover: Restored.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, p.52 & cat. 139 & 140

Reichel 1981, cat. 5

Stamford 1981, cat. 52

Ayers, Impey & Mallet 1990, cat. 54

Hartog 1990, cat 158

Ströber 2001, cat. 69

Jörg 2003/1, pp.259-260

Kyushu 2003, cat. 1804

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011756
2011756

Sold Ceramics - Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Other wares - Page 1

 

Object 2011756

 

Covered jar

 

Japan

 

1680-1700

 

Height with cover 615 mm (24.21 inch), height without cover 409 mm (16.10 inch), diameter of rim 150 mm (5.91 inch), diameter of footring 145 mm (5.71 inch)

 

Octagonal oviform jar on takefushi-shaped foot. Wide, octagonal upright neck. High, domed cover with flat rim and eight-sided, facetted, pointed knob. On the base a firing spur still attached. Decorated in underglaze blue with a continuous river scene showing large rocks, cloud scrolls, a waterfall, figures on a bridge and in a pagoda, a pine and bamboo tree and a blossoming prunus. On the shoulder a ruyi border and a band with narrow lappets and ruyi. On the mouthrim auspicious symbols alternating with formal flowers. On the cover a similar river scene, the knob with foliate scrolls. Above the foot a band of pointed half-leaves. Round the foot a key-fret pattern.

 

The pine tree, bamboo and prunus are known as 'The Three friends of Winter' and symbolise endurance, long life and happiness.(Jörg 2003/1, p.263

 

This covered jar might have originally been part of garniture consisting of three covered oviform-shaped jars and two cylindrical beaker vases with spreading mouths. They were very popular in the Netherlands and elsewhere in Europe where they were used as decorative items in the interior. Large garnitures could only be afforded by the nobility and well to do who displayed them in the representative rooms and galleries of their palaces and country houses. They were often placed on specially made pedestals or were mounted and functioned as exotic eyecatchers. Placed inside the fireplace they hid the blackened wall from view in summer and filled with sand, these jars were used as extinguishers near fire-places. The origin of the five-piece set has not been established yet but it seems logical to look to China, which influenced Japanese export wares in so many ways. Transitional pieces, including large covered jars with an enamelled decoration, reached The Netherlands in the 1640s, and clearly had a decorative function in the Dutch Interior. When Chinese production waned, the Japanese took over and from the late 17th century started to make similar jars and beakers in underglaze blue to order for the Dutch. Then, suddenly, they were no longer single objects but parts of five-piece sets. Large scale porcelain production for export was resumed in China in the early 1680s and many new shapes emerged. Apparently, the garniture set was among them. What exactly triggered the change from the single vase or beaker to a set is not known. Japanese covered jars decorated in underglaze blue usually show Chinese elements such as phoenixes, large flowering plants, rocks, and sometimes figures in a landscape setting. Most jars are globular or oviform. They reflect the relatively rare hexagonal and octagonal Chinese pieces, in particular the Transitional jars of the 1640's. The Chinese had stopped producing polygonal jars in the middle of the 17th century. This Japanese preference for any-sided pieces is also apparent in the shape of dishes, saucers and bowls made for export from the late 17th century onwards. Covers of jars are domed and often quite high. The knobs are large and either flattened, round or pear-shaped and rarely facetted as is the case with this jar It is interesting to note that the decoration on the Arita pieces does not imitate some of the specific Chinese Kangxi patterns, such as the characteristic division in bands of panels but show two or three wide panels filled with motifs taken from nature or a free-flowing composition all over the surface. Complete blue-and-white garnitures are extremely rare nowadays, and most existing single vases or jars might in fact have been part of such a set. When the five-piece sets became popular, the blue-and-white pieces were largely replaced by their polychrome (Imari) counterparts. (Hartog 1990, p.130, cat 158), (Jörg 2003/1, pp.259-260

 

These type of large covered jars may be considered as a form of Japanese 'Chinoiserie'  for the European market. In Japan larger covered jars of this kind were called chinkô tsubo (aloe jar), presumably because aromatic substances such as wood were transported in these jars by the Dutch East India Company, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC), from South East Asia to Europe. Shards of this type have been excavated on the site of the Dutch trading post of the VOC. in Nagasaki which are dated 1670-1700. (Ströber 2001, pp.156-157, cat. 69)

 

For an identically shaped and decorated covered jar, please see:

For a set of three similarly shaped and decorated covered jars, please see:

Condition:

Jar: A frit to the rim and a firing tension, star-shaped, hairline to the base.

Cover: A firing flaw to the inside and a hairline with some restored frits and chips to the rim.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, p.52 & cat. 151

Hartog 1990, cat 158

Ströber 2001, cat. 69

Jörg 2003/1, pp.259-260

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011989
2011989

Sold Ceramics - Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Other wares - Page 1

 

Object 2011989

 

Jar

 

Japan

 

1660-1680

 

Height 260 mm (10.24 diameter of mouthrim 105 mm (4.45 inch), diameter of footring 105 mm (4.13nch), weight 2,756 grams (97.22 ounce (oz.))

 

Published: H.A. Daendels, Catalogus tentoonstelling Japans blauw wit Porselein. Op Hollandse bestelling en in de Japanse smaak, exhibition catalogue Gemeentelijk Museum Het Princessehof, Leeuwarden 1981. Also Published as Mededelingenblad Nederlandse Vereniging van Vrienden van de Ceramiek, vols. 101/102, p.49, cat. 56.

 

Exhibited: Tentoonstelling Japans blauw en wit porselein. Op Hollandse bestelling en in de Japanse smaak, (exhibition Catalogue Gemeentelijk Museum Het Princessehof), Leeuwarden 10 april tot 19 juni 1981.

 

Jar on footring, short neck with a wide slightly spreading mouthrim. Fine crazing to the glaze of the lower half of the jar. The original cover is missing. Decorated in underglaze blue with two large panels filled with flowering chrysanthemum separated by lotus and scrolling foliage. On the shoulder a band of chrysanthemum petals and around the neck a band of lappets. On the shoulder a circular paper Christie's auction sale label. On the base a rectangular paper collectors label that reads: 'Mr. H.A. Daendels 104 Amsterdam', three rectangular paper Christie's auction sale lot 'DC 743' labels and a red circular paper label with the number: '56.

 

In 1981 the Gemeentelijk Museum Het Princessehof - Leeuwarden organised an exhibition devoted to blue -and-white porcelains made in Japan during the 17th and 18th centuries for export to the Netherlands in particular. Barbara Harrisson asked Mr. H.A. Deandels, a Dutch collector of early blue-and-white porcelains from Japan, to organize the exhibition. A catalogue was ensured with the support of the Nederlandse Vereniging van Vrienden van de Ceramiek.

 

The vase was included in the 1981 exhibition and published in its complementary catalogue as cat. 56.

 

 

Reproduced from: H.A. Daendels, Catalogus tentoonstelling Japans blauw wit Porselein. Op Hollandse bestelling en in de Japanse smaak, exhibition catalogue Gemeentelijk Museum Het Princessehof, Leeuwarden 1981. Also Published as Mededelingenblad Nederlandse Vereniging van Vrienden van de Ceramiek, vols. 101/102, p.49, cat. 56. 

 

 

 

After Mr Daendel's death the vase was, together with another Japanese vase, sold at Christie's Amsterdam in sale 2584, 20/21 May 2003, lot 437.

 

For similarly sized and shaped jars, please see:

Condition: A hairline to the rim.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 140

Daendels 1981, cat. 56

Oxford 1981, cat. 255

Kyushu 1990/1, cat. 349

Kyushu 1991, cat. 539 & 540

Kyushu 2001, cat. 429, 430 & 431

 

Price: € 2.999 - $ 2,895 - £ 2,348

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011949
2011949

Sold Ceramics - Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Other wares - Page 1

 

Object 2011949

 

Jar

 

Japan

 

1670-1680

 

Height 252 mm (9.92 inch), diameter of mouthrim 113 mm (4.45 inch), diameter of footring 104 mm (4.09 inch), weight 2,346 grams (54.46 ounce (oz.))

 

Jar on footring, short neck with a wide slightly spreading mouthrim. The original cover is missing. Decorated in underglaze blue with flowering plants alternating with a bird in flight. On the shoulder a folded leaves pattern border. Around the neck a band of lappets.

 

Garnitures are sets of (usually) three covered oviform-shaped jars and two cylindrical beaker vases with spreading mouths. They were very popular in the Netherlands and elsewhere in Europe, where they were used as decorative items in the interior. Large garnitures could only be afforded by the nobility and well to do who displayed them in the representative rooms and galleries of their palaces and country houses. They were often placed on specially made pedestals or were mounted and functioned as exotic eyecatchers. Placed inside the fireplace they hid the blackened wall from view in summer and filled with sand, these jars were used as extinguishers near fire-places. Smaller garnitures were placed on a table, a comptoir (a small cabinet with drawers), or on the mantelshelf, but their most natural place was on the top of a porcelain cabinet. The origin of the five-piece set has not been established yet but it seems logical to look to China, which influenced Japanese export wares in so many ways. Transitional pieces, including large covered jars with an enamelled decoration, reached The Netherlands in the 1640s, and clearly had a decorative function in the Dutch Interior. When Chinese production waned, the Japanese took over and from the late 17th century started to make similar jars and beakers in underglaze blue to order for the Dutch. Then, suddenly, they were no longer single objects but parts of five-piece sets. Large scale porcelain production for export was resumed in China in the early 1680s and many new shapes emerged. Apparently, the garniture set was among them. What exactly triggered the change from the single vase or beaker to a set is not known. Japanese covered jars decorated in underglaze blue usually show Chinese elements such as phoenixes, large flowering plants, rocks, and sometimes figures in a landscape setting. Most jars are globular or oviform. They reflect the relatively rare hexagonal and octagonal Chinese pieces, in particular the Transitional jars of the 1640's. The Chinese had stopped producing polygonal jars in the middle of the 17th century. This Japanese preference for any-sided pieces is also apparent in the shape of dishes, saucers and bowls made for export from the late 17th century onwards. Covers of jars are domed and often quite high. The knobs are large and either flattened, round or pear-shaped and rarely facetted. It is interesting to note that the decoration on the Arita pieces does not imitate some of the specific Chinese Kangxi patterns, such as the characteristic division in bands of panels but show two or three wide panels filled with motifs taken from nature or a free-flowing composition all over the surface. Complete blue-and-white garnitures are extremely rare nowadays, and most existing single vases or jars might in fact have been part of such a set. When the five-piece sets became popular, the blue-and-white pieces were largely replaced by their polychrome (Imari) counterparts. (Hartog 1990, p.130, cat 158), (Jörg 2003/1, pp.259-260

 

For similarly sized and shaped jars, please see:

Condition: A chip to the rim.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 142

Daendels 1981, cat. 50

Oxford 1981, cat. 261

Kassel 1990, cat. 206a,b & 207

London 1997, cat. 21

Jörg 2003/1, pp.259-260

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011525
2011525

Sold Ceramics - Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Other wares - Page 1

 

Object 2011525

 

Bottle

 

Japan

 

1660-1680

 

Height 239 mm (9.41 inch), diameter 109 mm (4.30 inch), diameter of mouthrim 30 mm (1.18 inch), diameter of footring 62 mm (2.44 inch), weight 429 grams (15.13 ounce (oz.))

 

Exhibited: The World at Home: Asian porcelain and Delft pottery held from 17 June 2017 to 24 March 2019 at the Groninger Museum, The Netherlands.

 

Pear-shaped bottle on footring. The body gradually tapering to a long, cylindrical neck. Decorated in underglaze blue with a single flower spray. On the neck three descending leaves filled with two groups of stone chimes with ribboned beaded pendents and tassels. Some adhering kiln grit to the footring. 

 

Sets of identical bottles or vases were probably an alternative to the expensive garnitures that were placed on top of porcelain cabinets in the Dutch interior. (Jörg 2003/1, p.99)

 

For similarly shaped bottles, please see:

Condition: A firing flaw with a glaze frit to the rim.

 

References

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 116

Daendels 1981, cat. 70

Kassel 1990, cat. 240

London 1997, cat. 10

Suchomel 1997, cat. 14

Impey 2002, cat. 113

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 97

Kyushu 2003, cat. 899

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011526
2011526

Sold Ceramics - Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Other wares - Page 1

 

Object 2011526

 

Bottle

 

Japan

 

1660-1680

 

Height 236 mm (9.29 inch), diameter 105 mm (4.13 inch), diameter of mouthrim 30 mm (1.18 inch), diameter of footring 62 mm (2.44 inch), weight 433 grams (15.27 ounce (oz.))

 

Exhibited: The World at Home: Asian porcelain and Delft pottery held from 17 June 2017 to 24 March 2019 at the Groninger Museum, The Netherlands.

 

Pear-shaped bottle on footring. The body gradually tapering to a long, cylindrical neck. Decorated in underglaze blue with a continuous landscap scene. On the neck three descending leaves filled with two groups of stone chimes with ribboned beaded pendents and tassels. Some adhering kiln grit to the footring. 

 

Sets of identical bottles or vases were probably an alternative to the expensive garnitures that were placed on top of porcelain cabinets in the Dutch interior. (Jörg 2003/1, p.99)

 

For similarly shaped bottles, please see:

Condition: A chip to the rim.

 

References

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 116

Daendels 1981, cat. 70

Kassel 1990, cat. 240

London 1997, cat. 10

Suchomel 1997, cat. 14

Impey 2002, cat. 113

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 97

Kyushu 2003, cat. 899

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2010937
2010937

Sold Ceramics - Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th century - Other wares - Page 1

 

Object 2010937

 

Double-gourd vase

 

Japan

 

1660-1690

 

Height 128 mm (5.04 inch), diameter 78 mm (3.07 inch), diameter of mouthrim 25 mm (0.98 inch), diameter of footring 44 mm (1.73 inch), weight 170 grams (6.00 ounce (oz.))

 

Small double-gourd bottle with flaring neck on footring. Fitted with an engraved and marked silver mount. Decorated in underglaze blue. On the lower bulb a Chinese kraak style decoration of a bird perched on a branch of a flowering plant. On the upper bulb, sprays of flowering branches enclosed by double circles. Around the neck a descending lotus leaves pattern border.

 

For similarly decorated apothecary bottles / gallipots, please see:

For similarly shaped bottles, please see:

Condition: Perfect.

 

References:

Daendels 1981, cat. 62 & cat. 68 

Kassel 1990, cat. 232

Kyushu 1991, cat. 332

Impey 2002, cat. 24 & cat 118

Kyushu 2003, cat. 1390

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2010369
2010369

Sold Ceramics - Sold Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Other wares - Page 1

 

Object 2010369

 

Bowl

 

Japan

 

2nd half 17th century

 

Height 52 mm (2.05 inch), diameter of rim 146 mm (5.75 inch), diameter of footring 73 mm (2.87 inch), weight 198 grams (6.98 ounce (oz.))

 

Bowl or klapmuts on footring, flat rim with upturned edge. On the base a single spur-mark. Decorated in underglaze blue in a Chinese kraak style. In the centre a stag standing amongst pine and rockwork, on the sides four medallions filled with flowers and peaches, separated by narrow panels filled with tassels. The interior rim is decorated with four medallions filled with Taotie monster masks and separated by narrow panels with tassels. On the outside four oval shaped medallions with four stylized flaming pearls, separated by narrow panels filled with lingzhi. in a large circle. The footring has been pierced.

 

Bowls of this shape with a flat rim are traditionally called klapmuts in Dutch, comparing the shape with a cap with flaps. Rinaldi states that they were specially developed to meet a demand from European customers, who wanted to be able to rest their spoons in the bowl without damaging the edge. In fact the form was already well-known, not as shallow bowls, but as late 15th-early 16th century large and fairly deep dishes in underglaze blue or as Song and early Ming celadon saucers and dishes. The klapmuts is just another variety in the gradual development of this type.  The piercing of the footring was done in order to fit a wire through it - the traditional Dutch way to hang dishes on walls as display pieces. (Rinaldi 1989, p.118 & p.137), (Jörg & Van Campen 1997, p.60)

 

For an identically decorated bowl or klapmuts, please see;

Condition: Perfect.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 2

Daendels 1981, cat. 7a & 7b

Pijl-Ketel 1982, inv. no: 6450.

Rinaldi 1989, p.1118 & p.137

 

Price: Sold.

 

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