Pater Gratia Oriental Art

Chinese Porcelain

 

Blue and White wares since 1722

 

Page 1

2011762
2011762

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2011762

 

Dish

 

China

 

1720-1730

 

Height 30 mm (1.18 inch), diameter 263 mm (10.35 inch), diameter of footring 140 mm (5.51 inch), weight 555 grams (19.58 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkou). Decorated in underglaze blue with a 'vajra' within a swirling clouds pattern border. On the rim knotted motifs alternating with floral scrolls. On the reverse two flower sprays.

 

Vajra is a Sanskrit word meaning both thunderbolt and diamond. Additionally, it is a weapon which is used as a ritual object to symbolize both the properties of a diamond (indestructibility) and a thunderbolt (irresistible force). The vajra is essentially a type of club with a ribbed spherical head. The ribs may meet in a ball-shaped top, or they may be separate and end in sharp points with which to stab. The vajra is used symbolically by the dharma traditions of Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism, often to represent firmness of spirit and spiritual power. The use of the vajra as a symbolic and ritual tool spread from India along with Indian religion and culture to other parts of Asia. This dish was probably meant for the Indian market and not for the Western market. (Wikipedia

 

A Japanese dish in the Rijksmuseum Collection (AK-RBK 1972-261) with a very similar type of deoration, is dated 1660-80, for this dish please see:

Condition: Two shallow glaze chips, two shallow glaze frits and various very tiny shallow fleabites all to the reverse rim. A chip or firing flaw to the inner footring.

 

References:

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 20

Sargent 2012, p.183

Wikipedia 

 

Price: € 349 - $ 392 - £ 304

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011875
2011875

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2011875

 

Dish

 

China

 

c.1720-1730

 

Height 29 mm (1.14 inch), diameter of rim 227 mm (8.94 inch), diameter of footring 128 mm (5.04 inch), weight 392 grams (13.83 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, convex centre and flat underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkou). Decorated in underglaze blue on the convex centre with a vase and a flower spray on a rolled out bookroll surrounded by a pointed leaves-pattern border with waves, rocks, a pagoda, flowering plants and a pomegranate. On the sides four groups of flowering plants. Around the rim a continuous decoration of figures in a landscape engaged in various stages of a duck hunt. On the reverse two flower sprays.

 

In the collection of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam are three Chinese Imari decorated dishes with rising convex bases. This type of dish, called a boter bord or 'butter dish' in the Netherlands, is also found in Delft earthenware. Besides a large knob of butter, this specific shape with its raised middle section could also be used for milk-puddings, savarin cakes and similar baked products served with butter or syrup sauces.

 

For identically shaped dishes, please see:

Condition: A frit and a hairline to the rim, some shallow frits and chips to the footring.

 

References:

Gulland 1911, pl. 245

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1977, cat. 176

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1981, cat. 86

Jörg 1982, pp.237-238

Sargent 2012, p.183

Suchomel 2015, cat. 86

 

Price: € 299 - $ 335 - £ 261

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange)

 

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2011972B
2011972B

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2011972B

 

Dish

 

China

 

1735-1745

 

Height 32 mm (1.26 inch), diameter of rim 214 mm (8.43 inch), diameter of footring 108 mm (4.25 inch), weight 332 grams (11.71 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. Decorated in underglaze blue with a peacock perched on a rock surrounded by pierced rockwork with flowering plants and a bird in flight. On the sides reserves outlined with scrolling spiky lotus leaves and filled with a bird on a flowering branch or a shell filled with flowering branches and ribbons. On the reverse two bamboo sprays. 

 

Condition: Some glaze rough spots frits, fleabites and a chip to the reverse rim.

 

Price: € 199 - $ 223 - £ 173

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011416
2011416

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2011416

 

Dish

 

China

 

c.1725

 

Height 35 mm (1.38 inch), diameter of rim 218 mm (9.45 inch), diameter of footring 120 mm (4.84 inch), weight 298 grams (10.51 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkou). Decorated in underglaze blue Chinese kraak style with two branches with fruit, one with pomegranates and one with finger-lemon fruit also called 'Buddha's-hand citron' (Citrus medica). The interior wall is divided into panels filled with swastika, scale-pattern, zig-zag lines and flowers. The reverse is undecorated.

 

The dish shows a simplified kraak decorative arrangement. Both decorative elements, pomegranates and 'Buddha's-hand citron' (Citrus medica), can also be found on Japanese blue and white Arita dishes from the Edo early period (1615-1703), c.1660-1680. Although the decoration on this dish is reminiscent of kraak, the undecorated reverse, is not. 

 

2010231 1

 

Object 2010231, Dish, Japan, Arita presumably Sarugawa, 1670-1690 (not included in this offer/sale).

 

In the cargo of the Ca Mau shipwreck, c.1725 a series of five, identically decorated, dishes were found together with a series of dishes decorated with the Chine de commande 'Scheveningen design'. Both original designs were traditionally made in Arita Japan 1660-1710 for the Dutch. These dishes were so popular that Chinese potters copied them in order to compete with the Japanese. Such copies were already known, but the occurrence in the Ca Mau made it likely that these dishes that these dishes, and therefore most of the porcelain cargo, were destined for Batavia because only the Dutch would appreciate such specific Chine de commande pieces. (Amsterdam 2007, p.17 & p.179)

 

In 1675 rebel armies swept across Jingdezhen, burning the greater part of kilns in the area to the ground. Five years later the Kangxi Emperor controlled the southern provinces, thus uniting China under his rule. In 1680 the young Emperor expressed his personal interest in the industry of the region by appointing a commission to study the problem of how best to rebuild the ceramic industry in the Jingdezhen area. Trade with the Dutch resumed in 1681. In 1682 the first of a series of able superintendents was appointed to establish and direct a kiln complex organized on an industrial basis which enjoyed Imperial patronage. A few decades after the restoration of the Jingdezhen kilns, some porcelains were still decorated with the kraak motifs which had been so popular during the late Ming Dynasty. Kraak copies produced at Jingdezhen during the last twenty years of the seventeenth century and the first decades of the eighteenth century no longer have grit adhering to the footring or chatter marks on the bases. Rims are not foliate but straight or carefully scalloped with the glaze adhering perfectly without forming the moth-eaten edge so typical for earlier Kraak wares. (Rinaldi 1989, pp.230-232, Pl.293)

 

The pomegranate, Punica granata, is a Buddhist sign. The fruit is supposed to represent the essence of the favourable influence believed to exist in the pomegranate tree. A twig of the pomegranate is sometimes used instead of willow for sprinkling water. The pomegranate, as in ancient Greece, is, also owing to its numerous seeds, an emblem of posterity. (Williams 1976, pp.332-333)

 

Buddha hand citron ws

 

The 'Fingered citron or Buddha's hand' (Citrus medica) is a small, open citrus with distinctive fruit, native to the foothills of the Himalayas. Around 320 BC, Greeks and Romans used the fruit as a source of fragrance and the leaves as a moth repellent. The fruit has also been used for centuries to perfume clothes and rooms, as ornaments in religious ceremonies and is appreciated for its medicinal qualities. This explains why the Chinese treated it as a precious decorative object in the old days. When the pomegranate ripens it opens up and exposes lots of seeds inside. Chinese people like its pretty appearance, signifying many offspring /children to come. (I am indebted to Mr S. Fan for this information)

 

For similarly decorated Chinese dishes, please see: 

For identically in Chinese kraak style decorated, original Japanese, Edo early period dishes for sale, please see:

For other identically in Chinese kraak style decorated, original Japanese, Edo early period dishes, please see:

Condition: A firing flaw, a frit and a chip to the rim. A hairline and a firing flaw with two connected hairlines to the base.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 8

Williams 1976, pp.332-333 

Rinaldi 1989, Pl.293

Hartog 1990, cat. 153

Impey 2002, cat. 128

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 8

Amsterdam 2007, lot 757

Sargent 2012, p.183

 

Price: € 749 - $ 841 - £ 654

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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201014
201014

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 201014

 

Saucer

 

China

 

1723-1735

 

Height 21 mm (0.82 inch), diameter of rim 113 mm (4.45 inch), diameter of footring 56 mm (2.20 inch), weight 70 grams (2.47 ounce (oz.))

  

Saucer on footring, flat rim. Decorated in underglaze blue with two courting cranes. Round the interior rim a stylized laurel leaves pattern border. The reverse is undecorated. The matching teacup is missing.

 

The crane (Grus montignesia) itself is an auspicious symbol, representing longevity and wisdom. They accompany Daoist immortals (xian, hsien) bringing from The Isles of Paradise the tablets in their beaks. A pair of cranes symbolizes 'Long Marriage' as cranes mate for life. (Pijl-Ketel 1982, p.279)

 

Among the ceramic cargo of the Ca Mau shipwreck (1725) almost identical shaped and decorated teacups and saucers with the so-called 'Courting Cranes' pattern were found. (Amsterdam 2007, pp.116-117)

 

Condition: A hairline and two frits to the rim.

 

References:

Pijl-Ketel 1982, p.279

Amsterdam 2007, pp.116-117

 

Price: € 149 - $ 167 - £ 130

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011881
2011881

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2011881

 

Dish

 

China

 

1730-1745

 

Height 28 mm (1.10 inch), diameter of rim 220 mm (8.66 inch), diameter of footring 115 mm (4.53 inch), weight 318 grams (11.22 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkou). Decorated in underglaze blue with a central flowerhead in a circular roundel surrounded by four groups of flowers. On the rim a border of swags and crowns. On the reverse three flower sprays. 

 

The border with swags and what appear to be crowns suggest an European design as source of inspiration for the decoration on this dish.

 

Condition: A fleabite to the footring and some very tiny fleabites to the reverse rim.

 

Price: € 349 - $ 392 - £ 304

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011692
2011692

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2011692

 

Bowl

 

China

 

1850 or later

 

Provenance: The George Eumorfopoulos Collection of Chinese, Corean & Persian Pottery & Porcelain.

 

Height 57 mm (2.20 inch), diameter of rim 146 mm (5.59 inch), diameter of footring 46 mm (2.20 inch), weight 144 grams (5.08 ounce (oz.))

 

Bowl on footring, slightly flaring rim. Decorated in underglaze blue with the Taoist Triad, three figures representing Tu (happiness), Lu (Official Advancement) and Shou (Longevity) in a fenced garden landscape. The interior with a stylised pine tree, a deer and lingzhi in a double cirle. Marked on the base with the highly stylised four character mark Hung-hsi, nien chieh. On the interior wall an old oval paper collectors label from George Eumorfopoulos with the handwritten collectors number C.159, in black ink.

 

The design on this bowl is unusual and the stylised mark can be considered extremely rare. The bowl is apparently over fired creating the cracked ice motif of the glaze.

 

2011692 12

 

George Eumorfopoulos was a distinguished collector of European and Oriental porcelain. He was born in Mount Pleasant, Liverpool, on 18 April 1863, the son of Aristides George Eumorfopoulos and Mariora Scaramanga. He worked for the merchant firm of Ralli Brothers, where he rose to the position of Vice-President before retiring in 1934. He initially collected European porcelain before moving on to create a renowned collection of early Chinese art, encompassing porcelain, archaic bronzes and jades, and sculpture and paintings. Eumorfopoulos turned a part of his house on Chelsea Embankment into a private museum to display these works of art, which attracted many visitors. Eumorfopoulos was a member of the Victoria & Albert’s Advisory Council from 1925 to 1935, and was a founder of the Oriental Ceramic Society and its first president from 1921 until his death in 1939. In 1934 he sold his collection at below market value to the British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum. (source: www.vam.ac.uk)

 

In the 1920's this bowl was regarded as export quality and dated 15th Century. The original George Eumorfopoulos collectors label states that this bowl was considered to be special enough by a collector of the stature of George Eumorfopoulos to take this bowl up in his prestigious collection. In Hobson's 'The George Eumorfopoulos Collection of Chinese, Corean & Persian Pottery & Porcelain' (1925-1928) the whole C-section is about early ceramics (Chün) but it does not include a number C.159. To my knowledge there have been no later subsequent catalogus created-except for the Bluett & Sons's 'Chinese Pottery and Porcelain from the Eumorfopoulos Collection' (1935) sale catalogue and the Sotheby's 'The Eumorfopoulos Collections. Catalogue of Persian Ceramics & Islamic Glass, Egyptian, Greek and Roman Antiquities, Choice Medieval & Renaissance Works of Art etc. formed by the late George Eumorfopoulos.'' (1940)

 

It is now recognised as an academically interesting piece of provincial Chinese blue-and-white made for the domestic market in Fujian Province (i.e. not in Jingdezhen) a lesser known manufacturing centre. It can be dated mid or second half 19th Century.  

 

Condition: Perfect.

 

Reference:

www.vam.ac.uk

 

Price: € 499 - $ 630 - £ 393

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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