Pater Gratia Oriental Art

Chinese Porcelain

 

Blue and White wares since 1722

 

Page 1

2012039
2012039

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2012039

 

Dish

 

China

 

1720-1740

 

Height 37 mm (1.46 inch), diameter of rim 245 mm (9.65 inch), diameter of footring 138 mm (5.43 inch), weight 418 grams (14.74 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkou). Decorated in underglaze blue with a pheasant on a rock flanked by flowering peony plants and a butterfly with insects in flight. On the sides a ruyi pattern border and on the rim figures in various types of landscapes. The reverse is undecorated.

 

The pheasant on a rock is a very popular motif on export porcelain and frequently appears on enamelled and underglaze blue Kangxi wares. According to Williams, in the Chinese bureaucratic hierarchy officials of the second grade had a gold pheasant embroidered on their court robes, those of the fifth grade a silver pheasant. The bird was represented as standing on a rock, looking towards the sun, the imperial symbol of authority. (Williams 1976, pp.322-323), (Jörg & Van Campen 1997, p.157)

 

For other objects decorated with the pheasant on a rock design, please see:

Condition: Two firing flaws and a fleabite and frit to the (reverse) rim.

 

References:

Williams 1976, pp.322-323

Jörg & Van Campen 1997, cat. 171

Jörg 2003/1, p.259

Sargent 2012, p.183

 

Price: € 499 - $ 555 - £ 450

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2010940
2010940

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2010940

 

Salt

 

China

 

c.1740

 

Height 53 mm (2.09 inch), diameter scale 60 mm (2.36 inch), diameter footring 74 mm (2.91 inch), weight 122 grams (4.30 ounce (oz.))

 

Salt of circular waisted form, on an open base. The inside glazed, the lower part tapering to the waist, the spreading top with a recessed centre, the rim extending downwards. Decorated in underglaze blue with around the foot a trellis pattern border with four cartouches filled with flower sprays, on the body three flower sprays and around the rim a trellis pattern border with four cartouches filled with flower sprays. The scalloped dish is decorated with a riverscape with mountains, trees, a house and a figure fishing along a shore. 

 

This salt was moat likely modelled after a European pewter or earthenware salt. It was part of a large dinner service. With many Christian connotations, salt was an important seasoning at dinner before the 19th century and salts were larger and more elaborate than they are today. (Howard 1994), (Jörg 2011)

 

For a similarly shaped salt decorated with famille verte enamels, please see:

Condition: Frits, chips and a partial rough rim to the underside of the scale, the upper rim of the scale is rough. A frit to the footring and two firing flaws to the inner wall.

 

References:

Howard 1994, cat. 127

Jörg 2011/2, cat. 142

 

Price: € 299 - $ 3335 - £ 261

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011972B
2011972B

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2011972B

 

Dish

 

China

 

1735-1745

 

Height 32 mm (1.26 inch), diameter of rim 214 mm (8.43 inch), diameter of footring 108 mm (4.25 inch), weight 332 grams (11.71 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. Decorated in underglaze blue with a peacock perched on a rock surrounded by pierced rockwork with flowering plants and a bird in flight. On the sides reserves outlined with scrolling spiky lotus leaves and filled with a bird on a flowering branch or a shell filled with flowering branches and ribbons. On the reverse two bamboo sprays. 

 

Condition: Some glaze rough spots frits, fleabites and a chip to the reverse rim.

 

Price: € 199 - $ 223 - £ 173

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011416
2011416

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2011416

 

Dish

 

China

 

c.1725

 

Height 35 mm (1.38 inch), diameter of rim 218 mm (9.45 inch), diameter of footring 120 mm (4.84 inch), weight 298 grams (10.51 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkou). Decorated in underglaze blue Chinese kraak style with two branches with fruit, one with pomegranates and one with finger-lemon fruit also called 'Buddha's-hand citron'. The interior wall is divided into panels filled with swastika, scale-pattern, zig-zag lines and flowers. The reverse is undecorated.

 

The dish shows a simplified kraak decorative arrangement. Both decorative elements, pomegranates and 'Buddha's-hand citron', can also be found on Japanese blue and white Arita dishes from the Edo early period (1615-1703), c.1660-1680. Although the decoration on this dish is reminiscent of kraak, the undecorated reverse, is not. 

 

2010231 1

 

Object 2010231, Dish, Japan, Arita presumably Sarugawa, 1670-1690 (not included in this offer/sale).

 

In the cargo of the Ca Mau shipwreck, c.1725 a series of five, identically decorated, dishes were found together with a series of dishes decorated with the Chine de commande 'Scheveningen design'. Both original designs were traditionally made in Arita Japan 1660-1710 for the Dutch. These dishes were so popular that Chinese potters copied them in order to compete with the Japanese. Such copies were already known, but the occurrence in the Ca Mau made it likely that these dishes that these dishes, and therefore most of the porcelain cargo, were destined for Batavia because only the Dutch would appreciate such specific Chine de commande pieces. (Amsterdam 2007, p.17 & p.179)

 

In 1675 rebel armies swept across Jingdezhen, burning the greater part of kilns in the area to the ground. Five years later the Kangxi Emperor controlled the southern provinces, thus uniting China under his rule. In 1680 the young Emperor expressed his personal interest in the industry of the region by appointing a commission to study the problem of how best to rebuild the ceramic industry in the Jingdezhen area. Trade with the Dutch resumed in 1681. In 1682 the first of a series of able superintendents was appointed to establish and direct a kiln complex organized on an industrial basis which enjoyed Imperial patronage. A few decades after the restoration of the Jingdezhen kilns, some porcelains were still decorated with the kraak motifs which had been so popular during the late Ming Dynasty. Kraak copies produced at Jingdezhen during the last twenty years of the seventeenth century and the first decades of the eighteenth century no longer have grit adhering to the footring or chatter marks on the bases. Rims are not foliate but straight or carefully scalloped with the glaze adhering perfectly without forming the moth-eaten edge so typical for earlier Kraak wares. (Rinaldi 1989, pp.230-232, Pl.293)

 

The pomegranate, Punica granata, is a Buddhist sign. The fruit is supposed to represent the essence of the favourable influence believed to exist in the pomegranate tree. A twig of the pomegranate is sometimes used instead of willow for sprinkling water. The pomegranate, as in ancient Greece, is, also owing to its numerous seeds, an emblem of posterity. (Williams 1976, pp.332-333)

 

Buddha hand citron ws

 

The 'Fingered citron or Buddha's hand' is a small, open citrus with distinctive fruit, native to the foothills of the Himalayas. Around 320 BC, Greeks and Romans used the fruit as a source of fragrance and the leaves as a moth repellent. The fruit has also been used for centuries to perfume clothes and rooms, as ornaments in religious ceremonies and is appreciated for its medicinal qualities. This explains why the Chinese treated it as a precious decorative object in the old days. When the pomegranate ripens it opens up and exposes lots of seeds inside. Chinese people like its pretty appearance, signifying many offspring /children to come. (I am indebted to Mr S. Fan for this information)

 

For similarly decorated Chinese dishes, please see: 

For identically in Chinese kraak style decorated, original Japanese, Edo early period dishes for sale, please see:

For other identically in Chinese kraak style decorated, original Japanese, Edo early period dishes, please see:

Condition: A firing flaw, a frit and a chip to the rim. A hairline and a firing flaw with two connected hairlines to the base.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 8

Williams 1976, pp.332-333 

Rinaldi 1989, Pl.293

Hartog 1990, cat. 153

Impey 2002, cat. 128

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 8

Amsterdam 2007, lot 757

Sargent 2012, p.183

 

Price: € 749 - $ 841 - £ 654

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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201014
201014

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 201014

 

Saucer

 

China

 

1723-1735

 

Height 21 mm (0.82 inch), diameter of rim 113 mm (4.45 inch), diameter of footring 56 mm (2.20 inch), weight 70 grams (2.47 ounce (oz.))

  

Saucer on footring, flat rim. Decorated in underglaze blue with two courting cranes. Round the interior rim a stylized laurel leaves pattern border. The reverse is undecorated. The matching teacup is missing.

 

The crane (Grus montignesia) itself is an auspicious symbol, representing longevity and wisdom. They accompany Daoist immortals (xian, hsien) bringing from The Isles of Paradise the tablets in their beaks. A pair of cranes symbolizes 'Long Marriage' as cranes mate for life. (Pijl-Ketel 1982, p.279)

 

Among the ceramic cargo of the Ca Mau shipwreck (1725) almost identical shaped and decorated teacups and saucers with the so-called 'Courting Cranes' pattern were found. (Amsterdam 2007, pp.116-117)

 

Condition: A hairline and two frits to the rim.

 

References:

Pijl-Ketel 1982, p.279

Amsterdam 2007, pp.116-117

 

Price: € 149 - $ 167 - £ 130

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011640
2011640

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2011640

 

Vomit-pot / children’s chamber-pot

 

China

 

1745-1752

 

Height 85 mm (3.35 inch), diameter of rim 128 mm (5.04 inch), diameter of footring 75 mm (2.95 inch), weight 434 grams (15.31 ounce (oz.))

 

Vomit pot on footring, splayed overturned rim with a thick, curved C-shaped handle. Decorated in underglaze blue with foliage, bamboo and flowering peony plants. On the rim three flower sprays and on the handle a single stylized flower on a stem.

 

Identical shaped and decorated vomit-pots were found amongst the ceramic cargo of the Dutch East India Company, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC) vessel Geldermalsen. Captain Michael Hatcher salvaged 495 blue & white vomit-pots in total. The content of  this ship was auctioned at Christie’s in 1986 as the Nanking cargo. 

 

The Geldermalsen, which sank in 1752 carried among its cargo some unusually shaped porcelains. As the porcelain trade between China and Europe revived from the very end of the seventeenth century, demand for Western shapes rapidly increased. The constantly changing demands of customers and the frequent ordering of new shapes made it necessary to provide the Chinese dealers with models. Western-manufactured  objects in wood, pewter, silver, glass and ceramics (like Dutch Delft) and numerous drawings were sent out to Canton and dropped off at Jingdezhen. Several kilns came to specialise in ‘Western‘ wares, probably making nothing else. At Jingdezhen the wares were potted in as close an imitation of the original as the Chinese could achieve. Hatcher found a number of shapes which must have been commissioned and delivered in this manner, among which a category of handled bowls such as this one, which were initially thought to be chamber-pots for children. In their auction sales catalogue Christie’s also referred to them as 'children's chamber-pots'. For their size, they could very well have been used for this purpose. 

 

However, the VOC archives suggest another more likely use: a ‘vomit pot’ (Dutch: spuijgpotje). Jörg mentions that the custom to use special porcelain vomit-pots after a rather too copious dinner has obviously not been fashionable for very long, perhaps as little as five years. VOC archival documents first mention them in 1745 (2049 blue & white decorated pieces), only to be followed by 1746 (1,017 pieces blue & white), 1750 (1,000 pieces blue and white, described as ‘in the manner of a small waterpot’, content 0.6 litre or 1 pint), 1751 (606 pieces blue & white, recorded on the shipping invoice of the Geldermalsen) and finally 1752 (540 blue & white pieces). We know that Heren XVII in their Requirements for 1751 expressly forbid the buying-in of vomits-pots. These small model vomit-pots had to be ordered specially at the factory and were not a substantial part of a VOC commercial cargo. The normal and somewhat  bigger water pot could be supplied from stock and was therefore cheaper and just as well suited to the purpose. However, as Jörg explains, in reality the Requirements for 1751 were ignored for several reasons and the cargo of the Geldermalsen was purchased according to the requirements of 1750. Whatever was in stock was taken along at once. The remainder of the VOC order of 1750 was shipped in 1752.

 

Because of the limited ordering this small vomit pot is therefore a rare article. Howard also mentions that the Geldermalsen cargo must have contained the great majority of those that still exist today.

 

For identically shaped and decorated vomit-pots, please see:

Condition: glaze rough spots to the sides of the handle and the complete underside of the rim. The handle could have broken of and restored at some point but in my opinion it hasn’t. Instead I think the handle shows two firing tension hairlines.

 

References:

Jörg 1982/1, p.192 & p.304

Amsterdam 1986, lots 1094-1169

Jörg 1986/1, pp.34-35, pp.69-70 & pp.80-81, appendix 3 p.115

Sheaf & Kilburn 1988, pp.134-135 & Pl. 175 

Howard 1994, p.228, cat. 270

Jörg & Van Campen 1997, pp. 252-253

 

Price: € 699 - $ 785 - £ 610

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011881
2011881

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2011881

 

Dish

 

China

 

1730-1745

 

Height 28 mm (1.10 inch), diameter of rim 220 mm (8.66 inch), diameter of footring 115 mm (4.53 inch), weight 318 grams (11.22 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkou). Decorated in underglaze blue with a central flowerhead in a circular roundel surrounded by four groups of flowers. On the rim a border of swags and crowns. On the reverse three flower sprays. 

 

The border with swags and what appear to be crowns suggest an European design as source of inspiration for the decoration on this dish.

 

Condition: A fleabite to the footring and some very tiny fleabites to the reverse rim.

 

Price: € 349 - $ 392 - £ 304

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011493
2011493

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2011493

 

Tea caddy

China

1720-1740

 

Height including cover 100 mm (3.94 inch), height excluding cover 93 mm (3.66 inch), dimensions 78 mm (3.07 inch) x 46 mm (1.81 inch), weight including cover 204 grams (7.20 ounce (oz.)), weight cover 16 grams (0.56 ounce (oz.))

Tea caddy of rectangular form with canted corners on a flat unglazed base. On the flat top an unglazed cylindrical mouth with a lid fitting cover (original). Decorated in underglaze blue with flowering plants on each facet of the body and shoulder. On the cover flower sprays and on top a single flowering stem. 

 

The inside of the cover was used to as a unit of measurement to determine the amount of tea needed.

Condition: Various glaze rough spots to the edges, due to use. A firing flaw to the inside of the cover. Two shallow glaze chips to the shoulder and one to the mouthrim.

 

Price: € 499 - $ 560 - £ 435

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011518
2011518

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2011518

 

Dish

 

China

 

1740-1760

 

Height 42 mm (1.65 inch), diameter of rim 248 mm (9.76 inch), diameter of footring 151 mm (5.94 inch), weight 513 grams (18.10 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, straight underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkou). Decorated in underglaze blue with a flower basket encircled by a foliate and floral scroll border. On the sides reserves filled with flowering lotus plants flanked by reserves filled with a diaper pattern and foliate and floral scrolls. The reverse is undecorated.

 

The basket filled with all kinds of flowers symbolises riches and abundance and therefore was a highly popular motif, appearing on many Jingdezhen underglaze-blue and polychrome porcelains. In the Netherlands the flower basket design was apparently regarded as very Chinese and exotic, while at the same time being recognisable and fitting in with Western imagery. The motif was often used on Delftware and in particular on Amsterdams Bont, the Dutch name for underglaze or plain white Chinese porcelain, over-decorated in Delft and elsewhere in enamales. (Jörg & Van Campen 1997, p.96), (Jörg 2011/2, p.60)  

 

Condition: A firing flaw to the inner footring and a fleabite to the rim.

 

References:

Jörg & Van Campen 1997, p.96

Jörg 2011/2, p.60

Sargent 2012, p.183

 

Price: Sold.

 

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201033
201033

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 201033

 

Klapmuts (Bowl)

 

China

 

1735-1745

 

Height 55 mm (2.17 inch), diameter of rim 95 mm (3.74 inch), diameter of footring 37 mm (1.46 inch), weight 86 grams (3.03 ounce (oz.))

 

Klapmuts or bowl on footring, flattened rim with with eight small indentations, decorated in underglaze blue with a flowering peony growing from pierced taihu (garden) rockwork and a single butterfly in flight on the rim with four flower sprays. On the inner rim five cartouches reserved on a cloud-pattern border and on the bottom a single lingzhi.

 

Condition: A tiny firing flaw to the footring and two fleabites to the rim.

 

Price: € 99 - $ 121 - £ 86

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011692
2011692

Blue and White wares since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2011692

 

Bowl

 

China

 

1850 or later

 

Provenance: The George Eumorfopoulos Collection of Chinese, Corean & Persian Pottery & Porcelain.

 

Height 57 mm (2.20 inch), diameter of rim 146 mm (5.59 inch), diameter of footring 46 mm (2.20 inch), weight 144 grams (5.08 ounce (oz.))

 

Bowl on footring, slightly flaring rim. Decorated in underglaze blue with the Taoist Triad, three figures representing Tu (happiness), Lu (Official Advancement) and Shou (Longevity) in a fenced garden landscape. The interior with a stylised pine tree, a deer and lingzhi in a double cirle. Marked on the base with the highly stylised four character mark Hung-hsi, nien chieh. On the interior wall an old oval paper collectors label from George Eumorfopoulos with the handwritten collectors number C.159, in black ink.

 

The design on this bowl is unusual and the stylised mark can be considered extremely rare. The bowl is apparently over fired creating the cracked ice motif of the glaze.

 

2011692 12

 

George Eumorfopoulos was a distinguished collector of European and Oriental porcelain. He was born in Mount Pleasant, Liverpool, on 18 April 1863, the son of Aristides George Eumorfopoulos and Mariora Scaramanga. He worked for the merchant firm of Ralli Brothers, where he rose to the position of Vice-President before retiring in 1934. He initially collected European porcelain before moving on to create a renowned collection of early Chinese art, encompassing porcelain, archaic bronzes and jades, and sculpture and paintings. Eumorfopoulos turned a part of his house on Chelsea Embankment into a private museum to display these works of art, which attracted many visitors. Eumorfopoulos was a member of the Victoria & Albert’s Advisory Council from 1925 to 1935, and was a founder of the Oriental Ceramic Society and its first president from 1921 until his death in 1939. In 1934 he sold his collection at below market value to the British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum. (source: www.vam.ac.uk)

 

In the 1920's this bowl was regarded as export quality and dated 15th Century. The original George Eumorfopoulos collectors label states that this bowl was considered to be special enough by a collector of the stature of George Eumorfopoulos to take this bowl up in his prestigious collection. In Hobson's 'The George Eumorfopoulos Collection of Chinese, Corean & Persian Pottery & Porcelain' (1925-1928) the whole C-section is about early ceramics (Chün) but it does not include a number C.159. To my knowledge there have been no later subsequent catalogus created-except for the Bluett & Sons's 'Chinese Pottery and Porcelain from the Eumorfopoulos Collection' (1935) sale catalogue and the Sotheby's 'The Eumorfopoulos Collections. Catalogue of Persian Ceramics & Islamic Glass, Egyptian, Greek and Roman Antiquities, Choice Medieval & Renaissance Works of Art etc. formed by the late George Eumorfopoulos.'' (1940)

 

It is now recognised as an academically interesting piece of provincial Chinese blue-and-white made for the domestic market in Fujian Province (i.e. not in Jingdezhen) a lesser known manufacturing centre. It can be dated mid or second half 19th Century.  

 

Condition: Perfect.

 

Reference:

www.vam.ac.uk

 

Price: € 499 - $ 630 - £ 393

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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