Pater Gratia Oriental Art

Sold Ceramics

 

Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645

 

Dishes

 

Page 1

Dutch merchants arrived in Asia towards the end of the 16th century. The The Dutch East India Company, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC), was founded in 1602, competed fiercely with the Portuguese as traders. Porcelain from captured Portuguese vessels (caraccas) was called kraak porcelain, a Dutch corruption of the Portuguese word. It was made especially for export in Jingdezhen, the porcelain centre in Jiangxi Province. The VOC shipped it in huge quantities and soon it was a commonplace item in Dutch interiors.

 

Kraak porcelain was primarily bought for practical use but pieces also had decorative functions. The paintings, done in underglaze blue only, show landscapes and animals, rarely human figures, making this porcelain suitable for Islamic markets, too. Buddhist and Daoist good luck symbols make up the panelled border decorations. Plates and dishes were moulded. They are thin, usually rather quickly finished and often have kiln grit adhering to the underside. The glaze on the edge is often retracted. Apart from large dishes, the bases of other objects are glazed, and the V-shaped footring is slightly undercut. Initially, the panels on kraak porcelain were raised, but this feature disappeared at the end of this period.

Dishes are the most representative of all Kraak shapes. There are several Kraak characteristics which could be taken into account for a classification of these dishes, but it is evident that the most distinctive feature is the border which, with one exception (Border II), always covers both cavetto and rim. The distinct border patterns found on Kraak dishes lend themselves to a classification of nine border groups.

 

Border I (c.1570-1625) and  Border II (c.1565-1600) II

  • represent a transition in which decorative styles and space arrangements, which were popular during the Jiajing period, continued to be used on a body which now fully complies with Kraak characteristics.

Border III (c.1580-1610)

 

Border IV (c.1575-1605)

 

Border V (c.1575-1615)

 

Borders I to V are generally assigned to the second half of the sixteenth century. As they are often present in Dutch collections, it is likely that some of these styles were still produced in the early years of the seventeenth century.

 

Border VI (c.1575-1605)

  • shows the transition between sixteenth- and seventeenth-century styles.

Border VII.1 (c.1595-1610), Border VII.2 (c.1610-1630) and Border VII.3 (c.1630-1650),

  • were produced in large quantities during the first half of the seventeenth century. Since specimens were recovered from both the Witte Leeuw (1613) and the Hatcher Cargo (1640-1645) and represent a thirty year spread, the noticeable evolution in style is embodied in three subgroups (1, 2 & 3).

Border VIII (c.1595-1645)

  • was also produced in great numbers over a long period of time, but the decoration remained almost unchanged for several decades.

 Border IX (c.1635-1650)

  • shows the blending of typical kraak and Transitional styles.

(source: Rinaldi 1989, pp.72-117)

2011631
2011631

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645 - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2011631

 

Dish

 

China

 

1610-1625

 

Height 36 mm (1.42 inch), diameter of rim 207 mm (8.15 inch), diameter of footring 128 mm (5.04 inch), weight 301 grams (10.62 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, spreading sides, lobed rim. Some kiln sand adhering to the footring. Decorated in underglaze blue with a bird perched on a rock near a flowering peony, above swirling clouds. The sides with a double row of chrysanthemum petals in light relief. On the reverse a chain of interlocking rings around the exterior of the footring. On the base a rectangular paper dealers label that reads: 'IAN & BRIGID, 322, RODGERS'.

 

According to Rinaldi this dish can be classified as a border I (type b, with scallops) dish. Border I (c.1750-1625) dishes are small (c.200-220 mm / 7.87-8.66 inch), with a convex cavetto and an occasionally slightly flaring, foliated rim. The border has no underglaze blue decoration but the mouldings show a great variety of designs. Based on these designs it is possible to divide this long-lasting group into two categories (type a and b) and in chronological order. Type a dishes usually have very elaborate mouldings and in better quality pieces are clearly defined. Type b dishes have scalloped cavettos, with the scallops almost invariably arranged in double tiers. These pieces are usually coarser than the type a pieces with more complex mouldings. (Rinaldi 1989)

 

Jörg states that this type of impressed side decoration occurs on small to medium sized kraak dishes, but not on the lampetschotels (large dishes). (Jörg 2002/2)

 

According to Litzenburg similarly moulded kraak dishes are known that exhibit a central decoration with birds, vases, flowers, ruyi-heads, or ribboned emblems. Rinaldi notes that some of the landscape scenes appear to foreshadow the style of the 'Transitional period' (1620-1683).Two related examples in the Topkapi Sarray Museum were inlaid with jewels and gold, which attest to the value attributed to these simple export dishes. (Litzenburg 2003)

  

A smaller, but similarly shaped and well painted, dish was excavated from the wreck of the Dutch East India Company, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC) vessel the Witte Leeuw (1613). Its properly excavated and documented cargo included many pieces of kraak porcelain in a wealth of varieties. (Pijl-Ketel 1982)

 

For similarly shaped and decorated Border I type b dishes, please see:

Condition: Some shallow glaze rough spots and a short hairline to the rim, a frit to the inner footring.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1977, cat. 19

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1981, cat. 47

Pijl-Ketel 1982, p. 181, inv.no: 10121

Rinaldi 1989, pp.73-76, Pl. 49

Jörg 2002/2, cat. 27

Litzenburg 2003, cat. 2

Jörg 2011/1, cat. 3

Sargent 2012, cat. 32

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011823
2011823

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645 - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2011823

 

Dish

 

China

 

c.1580

 

Height 33 mm (1.30 inch), diameter of rim 191 mm (7.52 inch), diameter of footring 97 mm (3.82 inch), weight 229 grams (8.08 ounce (oz.))

 

Published: Fraeylema Nieuws, number 52, September 2015

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. Decorated in underglaze blue with two birds perched on the branches of a fruiting peach tree in a central medallion. The sides are undecorated. On the rim precious objects alternating with fruiting peach sprays. On the exterior rim four elongated flowering stems separated by dots. On the exterior wall two elongated peach sprays separated by dots. Marked on the base with a seal mark in Zhuanshu script. 

 

According to Rinaldi this dish can be classified as a border II (c.1565-1600) dish. Border II dishes are usually small, from 140 (5.51 inch) to 220 mm (8.66 inch). This is the only border in which the cavetto and the rim are not decorated as a unit. Another peculiarity of this border is that it does not have moulded designs. The cavetto is white and two interchangeable motifs are commonly found on the flat foliated rim. The centre medallion is frequently decorated with a deer and sometimes with a pagoda motif. The underside is decorated on the wall with a bird on bifurcating branches, while there are delicate prunus sprays under the rim. (Rinaldi 1989, pp.76-80)

 

Two quite different forms of script were used for most marks. The more familiar type is the regular kaishu script introduced in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. The second type, which we see here, is the more angular seal script known as Zhuanshu (‘shu’ means ‘writing’). It was first used on ancient bronze vessels. (Davison 2010, p.17). 

 

This particular mark reads “Beautiful vessel for the rich and honourable” (Davison 2010, p. 231 nr. 3259)

The characters  "富 貴 佳 器" translate as follows: 富 means Rich, 貴 means expensive, "富 貴” together means wealth and prosperous. 佳 means good and  器 means vessel, equipment or tool. (I am indebted to Mr. S.Fan for the  translations)

 

Incomplete or damaged dishes of this type (size and decoartion) are found amongst the cargo of Portuguese shipwrekcs, dishes in a good condition, like this dish, are rare. (source: Fraeylema Nieuws, number 52, September 2015)

 

For a dish, similarly decorated on the reverse, please see:

Condition: Some chips frits and fleabites to the rim and footring. 

 

References:

Rinaldi 1989, Pl. 55

Davison 2010, p.17 & p. 231 nr. 3259

Fraeylema Nieuws, number 52, September 2015

 

Price: Sold.

 

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201078
201078

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645 - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 201078

 

Dish

 

China

 

1575-1615

 

Height 35 mm (1.37 inch), diameter of rim 204 mm (8.03 inch), diameter of footring 115 mm (4.53 inch)

 

Published: Chinese and Japanese porcelain for the Dutch Golden Age, (J. van Campen & T. Eliëns ed., Waanders Publishers in collaboration with Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, Gemeentemuseum Den Haag, Groninger Museum, Keramiekmuseum Princessehof Leeuwarden, Zwolle 2014, p.52 & p.81, Fig. 34.

 

Dish on footring, slightly scalloped flat rim, pierced footring. Decorated in underglaze blue with two spotted deer in a landscape with rocks, plants and a pine tree encircled by a double band. On the sides and rim eight large panels filled with flowers and peaches alternating with narrow panels with rows of dots. On the reverse eight broad panels filled with flaming pearls.

 

According to Rinaldi this dish can be classified as a Border V dish. Border V is characterized by large segments separated by narrow ones. The decoration on the border is less crowded than on other groups. Each large section usually contains a dainty floral or fruit spray or insects, and allows plenty of undecorated space around each design. In the narrow sections there are only dots or a thinly-drawn knotted ribbon. In contrast to the airy border, the central medallion is rather crowded. The underside, following the inside pattern, is divided into large sections with symbols or jewels. and narrow segments with lingzhi(Rinaldi 1989, pp.88-91)

 

The central decoration of two deer in a landscape refers to the belief that only deer were capable of finding the divine mushroom of immortality. It fits seamlessly into the popular Chinese iconography of that period, in which a long life is central. (Campen & Eliëns 2014, p.56)

 

Ostkamp states that A large group of intact objects of Kraak porcelain emerged from the wreck of the Spanish galleon the San Diego, which sank in 1600 off the coast of the Philippines. It is noticeable that alongside Kraak porcelain of an often exceptionally high quality (Fig. 34) there is also much coarse Zhangzhou porcelain among the finds. (Campen & Eliëns 2014, p.52 & p.81, Fig. 34)

 

A hole has been drilled in the very short footring in order to fit a wire through it - the traditional Dutch way to hang dishes on walls as display pieces. (Rinaldi 1989, p.137)

 

Condition: A small glaze hairline and two very tiny fleabites to the rim. 

 

References:

Rinaldi 1989, P.137, Pl. 68 & Pl. 72

Campen & Eliëns 2014, p.52, p.56 & Fig. 34

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2010580
2010580

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645 - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2010580

 

Dish

 

China

 

1610-1630

 

Height 55 mm (2.17 inch), diameter of rim 358 mm (14.09 inch), diameter of footring 185 mm (7.28 inch)

 

Dish on footring, slightly scalloped flat rim. Decorated in a deep underglaze blue with a flower basket, filled with flowering peonies, encircled by an eight pointed scalloped medallion. The sides and rim with large panels filled with a peach form, an evolved sunflower motif and different Buddhist symbols alternating with narrow panels filled with a diaper pattern and dots. On the reverse large ogival or round panels filled with fungus and dots and narrow panels with lingzhi motifs.

 

According to Rinaldi this dish can be classified as a Border VII.2 dish. Here the large panels on the border are no longer filled with floral sprays or insects, while the peach has begun its transformation into what is known as the sunflower motif. Auspicious symbols replace floral sprays and insects, most of them concerned with longevity, as if to ward off the dangers of wars and famines which swept over China at that time. These symbols are usually Daoist or the Eight treasures. Buddhist symbols are much rarer. In this group narrow panels are partly filled with diaper motifs. In the centre Medallion the ducks in a pond and the hanging basket are still very common. In this group a new motif appears: a bird on a rock near water and large flowers, usually peonies. The scheme of the underside repeats that of the front. Large ogival or round panels contain fungus and dots; narrow sections contain stylised lingzhi motifs. In this group narrow panels are partly filled with diaper motifs while there are a few dishes which do not have a diaper border around the central medallion. (Rinaldi 1989, pp.100-105)

 

By placing the flower basket inside a garden fence, the decorator suggests a feeling of inner peace. The flower basket represents Lan Cai He, one of the Eight Immortals, patron Saint of gardeners and florists. (Sjostrand & Lok Lok 2007, p.175)

 

For a similarly decorated dish, please see;

Condition: Two hairlines, a chip to the reverse rim and footring and firing flaws to the base and rim. Around the edge glaze rough spots.

 

References:

Rinaldi 1989, Pl.96

Sjostrand & Lok Lok 2007, Serial No. 4252 & 7945

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2010724
2010724

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645 - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2010724

 

Dish

 

China

 

1610-1630

 

Height 62 mm (2.44 inch), diameter 353 mm (13.90 inch), diameter of footring 180 mm (7.09 inch)

 

Dish on footring, slightly scalloped flat rim. Decorated in underglaze blue with the ducks-in-a-pond motif, encircled by an eight pointed scalloped medallion. On the sides and rim large panels filled with the sunflower motif and symbols alternating with narrow panels filled with dots and a diaper or scale pattern. On the reverse large ogival or round panels filled with fungus and dots and narrow panels with lingzhi motifs.

 

According to Rinaldi this dish can be classified as a Border VII.2 dish. Here the large panels on the border are no longer filled with floral sprays or insects, while the peach has begun its transformation into what is known as the sunflower motif. Auspicious symbols replace floral sprays and insects, most of them concerned with longevity, as if to ward off the dangers of wars and famines which swept over China at that time. These symbols are usually Daoist or the Eight treasures. Buddhist symbols are much rarer. In this group narrow panels are partly filled with diaper motifs. In the centre Medallion the ducks in a pond and the hanging basket are still very common. In this group a new motif appears: a bird on a rock near water and large flowers, usually peonies. The scheme of the underside repeats that of the front. Large ogival or round panels contain fungus and dots; narrow sections contain stylised lingzhi motifs. In this group narrow panels are partly filled with diaper motifs while there are a few dishes which do not have a diaper border around the central medallion. (Rinaldi 1989, pp.100-105)

 

A design of a wild duck at a lotus pond signifies blessings for a fruitful marriage, since a marriage proposal was made by a man sending a duck to the woman's family as a present. Acceptance of the duck meant acceptance of the proposal. The lotus, shown in different stages of growth, symbolizes purity and abundant offspring by recalling the common phrase "from the lotus comes noble offspring". (Sjostrand & Lok Lok 2007, p.288, Serial No. 5095

 

For similarly decorated dishes with the ducks-in-a-pond motif, please see:

The decoration on this dish is of great quality, finely painted with attention to detail, see the sun and the two flocks of birds on the horizon.

 

Condition: Three shallow glaze rough spots to the rim, due to missing glaze, a scratch to the glaze (not being a hairline) and a shallow chip to the inner footring.

 

References:

Rinaldi 1989, pp.100-105 &  Pl.90 & Pl.93

Sjostrand & Lok Lok 2007, p.288 & Serial No. 2454 & 5095

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2010395
2010395

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645 - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2010395

 

Dish

 

China

 

1610-1630

 

Height 50 mm (1.73 inch), diameter of rim 320 mm (11.34 inch), diameter of footring 170 mm (6.10 inch)

 

Dish on footring, slightly scalloped flat rim. Decorated in a deep underglaze blue with a flower basket, filled with peonies, peaches, a book scroll, an artemisia leaf and a ruyi head encircled by an eight pointed scalloped medallion. On the sides and rim large panels filled with a peach and different Buddhist symbols alternating with narrow panels with dots and a diaper pattern. The scheme of the underside repeats that of the front, large ogival or round panels filled with fungus and dots and narrow panels with lingzhi motifs.

 

According to Rinaldi this dish can be classified as a Border VII.2 dish. Here the large panels on the border are no longer filled with floral sprays or insects, while the peach has begun its transformation into what is known as the sunflower motif. Auspicious symbols replace floral sprays and insects, most of them concerned with longevity, as if to ward off the dangers of wars and famines which swept over China at that time. These symbols are usually Daoist or the Eight treasures. Buddhist symbols are much rarer. In this group narrow panels are partly filled with diaper motifs. In the centre Medallion the ducks in a pond and the hanging basket are still very common. In this group a new motif appears: a bird on a rock near water and large flowers, usually peonies. The scheme of the underside repeats that of the front. Large ogival or round panels contain fungus and dots; narrow sections contain stylised lingzhi motifs. In this group narrow panels are partly filled with diaper motifs while there are a few dishes which do not have a diaper border around the central medallion. (Rinaldi 1989, pp.100-105)

 

By placing the flower basket inside a garden fence, the decorator suggests a feeling of inner peace. The flower basket represents Lan Cai He, one of the Eight Immortals, patron Saint of gardeners and florists. (Sjostrand & Lok Lok 2007, p.175)

 

Condition: A hairline, a firing flaw and some glaze frits to the rim, a scratch to the glaze of the interior wall.

 

References:

Rinaldi 1989, Pl.96

Sjostrand & Lok Lok 2007, Serial No. 4252

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2010203
2010203

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645 - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2010203

 

Dish

 

China

 

1610-1630

 

Height 44 mm (1.73 inch), diameter of rim 288 mm (11.34 inch), diameter of footring 155 mm (6.10 inch)

 

Dish on footring, slightly scalloped flat rim. Decorated in underglaze blue with a flower basket, filled with a book scroll and a flowering peony encircled by an eight pointed scalloped medallion. On the sides and rim large panels filled with a peach form, an evolved sunflower motif, and different Buddhist symbols alternating with narrow panels filled with ribbons and a diaper pattern. The scheme of the underside repeats that of the front, large ogival or round panels filled with fungus and dots and narrow panels with lingzhi motifs.

 

According to Rinaldi this dish can be classified as a Border VII.2 dish. Here the large panels on the border are no longer filled with floral sprays or insects, while the peach has begun its transformation into what is known as the sunflower motif. Auspicious symbols replace floral sprays and insects, most of them concerned with longevity, as if to ward off the dangers of wars and famines which swept over China at that time. These symbols are usually Daoist or the Eight treasures. Buddhist symbols are much rarer. In this group narrow panels are partly filled with diaper motifs. In the centre Medallion the ducks in a pond and the hanging basket are still very common. In this group a new motif appears: a bird on a rock near water and large flowers, usually peonies. The scheme of the underside repeats that of the front. Large ogival or round panels contain fungus and dots; narrow sections contain stylised lingzhi motifs. In this group narrow panels are partly filled with diaper motifs while there are a few dishes which do not have a diaper border around the central medallion. (Rinaldi 1989, pp.100-105)

 

By placing the flower basket inside a garden fence, the decorator suggests a feeling of inner peace. The flower basket represents Lan Cai He, one of the Eight Immortals, patron Saint of gardeners and florists. (Sjostrand & Lok Lok 2007, p.175)

 

Condition: A crack, two frits and a fleabite to the rim.

 

References: 

Rinaldi 1989, Pl.96

Sjostrand & Lok Lok 2007, Serial No. 4252 & 7945

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2010510
2010510

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645 - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2010510

 

Dish

 

China

 

1620-1640

 

Height 54 mm (2.16 inch), diameter of rim 280 mm (11.02 inch), diameter of footring 155 mm (6.10 inch)

 

Dish on footring, slightly scalloped flat rim. Decorated in underglaze blue with a bird perched on a rock in a marshy landscape with flowering chrysanthemum plants, mountains the sun and clouds encircled by an eight pointed scalloped medallion. On the sides and rim with large panels filled with peach and auspicious symbols alternating with narrow panels with a diaper or scale pattern and tassels. The scheme of the underside repeats that of the front, large ogival or round panels filled with contain fungus and dots alternating with narrow panels with lingzhi motifs.

 

According to Rinaldi this dish can be classified as a Border VII.2 dish. Here the large panels on the border are no longer filled with floral sprays or insects, while the peach has begun its transformation into what is known as the sunflower motif. Auspicious symbols replace floral sprays and insects, most of them concerned with longevity, as if to ward off the dangers of wars and famines which swept over China at that time. These symbols are usually Daoist or the Eight treasures. Buddhist symbols are much rarer. In this group narrow panels are partly filled with diaper motifs. In the centre Medallion the ducks in a pond and the hanging basket are still very common. In this group a new motif appears: a bird on a rock near water and large flowers, usually peonies. The scheme of the underside repeats that of the front. Large ogival or round panels contain fungus and dots; narrow sections contain stylised lingzhi motifs. In this group narrow panels are partly filled with diaper motifs while there are a few dishes which do not have a diaper border around the central medallion. (Rinaldi 1989, pp.100-105)

 

Condition: Some glaze chips, fleabites, three hairlines and glaze rough spots all to the rim.

 

Reference:

Rinaldi 1989, pp.100-105

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011050
2011050

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645 - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2011050

 

Dish

 

China

 

1620-1640

 

Height 33 mm (1.30 inch), diameter of rim 215 mm (8.46 inch), diameter of footring 119 mm (4.69 inch)

 

Dish on footring, slightly scalloped flat rim. Decorated in underglaze blue with a grasshopper on a rock in a marshy landscape besides a flowering prunus branch, clouds and a flying butterfly with insects, encircled by a four pointed scalloped medallion. On the sides and rim large panels filled with peach and auspicious symbols alternating with narrow panels with a diaper or scale pattern and tassels. The scheme of the underside repeats that of the front, large ogival or round panels filled with fungus and dots alternating with narrow panels filled with lingzhi motifs. Marked on the base with a double circle, underglaze blue.

 

According to Rinaldi this dish can be classified as a Border VII.2 dish. Here the large panels on the border are no longer filled with floral sprays or insects, while the peach has begun its transformation into what is known as the sunflower motif. Auspicious symbols replace floral sprays and insects, most of them concerned with longevity, as if to ward off the dangers of wars and famines which swept over China at that time. These symbols are usually Daoist or the Eight treasures. Buddhist symbols are much rarer. In this group narrow panels are partly filled with diaper motifs. In the centre Medallion the ducks in a pond and the hanging basket are still very common. In this group a new motif appears: a bird on a rock near water and large flowers, usually peonies. The scheme of the underside repeats that of the front. Large ogival or round panels contain fungus and dots; narrow sections contain stylised lingzhi motifs. In this group narrow panels are partly filled with diaper motifs while there are a few dishes which do not have a diaper border around the central medallion. (Rinaldi 1989, pp.100-105)

 

For a similarly decorated dish, please see:

For a similarly decorated, sold Japanese dish please see:

For a similarly decorated, sold Dutch (Delft) dish please see:

Condition: A firing flaw to the shape of the rim and on the interior rim. A glaze hairline to the base (only visible to the rear side) and some shallow rough spots to rim due to glaze loss.

 

References:

Rinaldi 1989, Pl. 89 & Pl. 97

Sjostrand & S. Lok Lok 2007, Serial No. 1351

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011046
2011046

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645 - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2011046

 

Dish

 

China

 

1610-1630

 

Height 56 mm (2.20 inch), diameter 287 mm (11.30 inch), diameter of footring 145 mm (5.71 inch)

 

Dish on footring, slightly scalloped flat rim. Decorated in underglaze blue. In the centre a, vary rare, decoration of two phoenixes, encircled by an eight pointed scalloped medallion. On the sides and rim large panels filled with a peach form, an evolved sunflower motif and different Buddhist symbols alternating with narrow panels filled with a diaper pattern and dots. The scheme of the underside repeats that of the front, large ogival or round panels filled with fungus and dots alternating with narrow panels with lingzhi motifs.

 

According to Rinaldi this dish can be classified as a Border VII.3 dish. Borders in this group show a great variety in their decorative motifs. The most common bears the sunflower motif alternating with large and simply drawn symbols. Dishes with similar border were found among the shards from the São Gonçalo. The seven broad panels filled rounded shapes on the reverse of this specific dish are unusual because most dishes of the border VII 3. type have no more than four to six circles / rounded shapes on the reverse. (Rinaldi 1989, pp.106-108)

 

Dishes with the Dragon, the symbol of the Emperor, are rare, but dishes with two phoenixes (the symbol of the Empress) are even rarer. One is in a private collection in England (originally from The Netherlands). Another, lodged in the ceiling of a room in the Santos Palace in Lisbon, may well be unique for the quality of the painting. This large dish, with unglazed base, has a decoration on the border as well as on the underside which is typical of this group. Another dish with phoenixes in the large medallion was found among the Witte Leeuw shards (Pijl-Ketel 1982, p.63, no. 2019). Sometimes the phoenix decorates some of the large panels of the border, dishes with this motif were found in the Witte Leeuw (Pijl-Ketel 1982, pp.54-55 & Rinaldi 1989, p.102)

 

The two phoenixes as symbol of the Empress is rarely depicted on kraak porcelain. When it appears it is almost always on dishes with this border.

 

For an identically decorated dish, please see:

Condition: A firing flaw to the wall/rim and a hairline, a shallow glaze chip and tiny glaze fritting all to the rim.

 

References:

Pijl-Ketel 1982, pp. 270-283

Rinaldi 1989, Pl. 94

Kassel 1990, cat. 13

 

Price: Sold.

 

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