Pater Gratia Oriental Art

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When internal wars began to impede the production of, and consequently the trade in, Chinese porcelain toward the end of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), several Dutch Merchants began to buy porcelain in Japan. At the same time, the production of faience pottery in Delft was stimulated, in order to compensate the shortage of Chinese porcelain. From 1658 onward, the Dutch East India Company, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC) also recognized these commercial opportunities and began to order greater quantities of porcelain from Japan. In addition to a very diverse assortment of blue-and-white porcelain. largely in the style of traditional Chinese export goods, the coloured Japanese porcelain formed an unexpected new article in the Netherlands. It soon became very fashionable and the Company was able to generate a great deal of profit in this field.

 

One potter who benefited greatly from the new Dutch orders was Sakaida Kakiemon, who owned a porcelain kiln near Nangawara, just outside Arita. His porcelains characterized by a lucid whit composition and texture with decorations in various tints of enamel including orange-red, grass-green and blue.

In the Sold Kakiemon / Kakiemon style wares category the sold objects are categorized In the following order: 

  • Sold Kakiemon wares
  • Sold Kakiemon style wares

 

Sold Kakiemon wares

2011767
2011767

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kakiemon / Kakiemon-style wares - Kakiemon - Page 1

 

Object 2011767

 

Dish

 

Japan (Kakiemon)

 

1670-1700

 

Height 34 mm (1.33 inch), diameter of rim 188 mm (7.68 inch), diameter of footring 112 mm (4.41 inch) weight 330 grams (11.64 ounce (oz.))

 

Exhibited: The Asian Galleries Reinmagined - Color Across Asia held from 21 December 2016 to 13 May 2018 at the Ackland Art Museum, The University of North Carolina at Chaphil Hill, The United States of America, Object Guide no. 20.

 

Dish on footring, moulded sides with a scalloped underglaze brown-edged rim. On the base four spur-marks in a Y-pattern. Decorated in underglaze blue with a village with a church and houses, a lighthouse with trees, figures with a cow and poles with clouds. On the reverse stylized foliate scrolls. The low footring is encircled with a double concentric band. Marked on the base with a fuku ['luck'] mark within a double-lined square in seal script, four spur-marks in a Y-pattern and an old circular paper collectors label which reads: '47.'.

 

The design on this dish has traditionally been called 'Deshima' or 'Scheveningen'. This design was highly popular in The Netherlands, and possibly also in Japan as a kind of Western exoticism. It first appeared, in underglaze blue, on Japanese dishes of the late 17th century.

 

It certainly does not depict the Dutch factory in Deshima (Nagasaki), a fan-shaped, man-made island in Japan to which Westerners were restricted between 1641 and 1862. Scheveningen, a fishermen´s village on the Dutch coast near The Hague seems a more appropriate name. In fact 47 'Scheveningen' plates were already mentioned in the 1778 sale catalogue of the porcelain shop of Martha Raap in Amsterdam, clearly indicating this type. Much research was done to find the print that was used as a model, but non with this view have yet come to light. it is therefore possible that another source was used, maybe a plate or dish in the so-called Frijtom style. Frederick van Frijtom (c.1632-1702) was a Delft faience painter who specialised in plates, dishes and plaques with landscapes in blue. His work is characterised by wide blank rims on plates and dishes, detailed painting of trees and landscapes and a specific way of drawing clouds. (Jörg 2003/1) The existence of a Scheveningen Japanese plate in precisely this style makes it plausible that at some point a Delft example by Frijtom was used. (Terwee 1989)

 

For this Japanese 'Scheveningen decoration' dish in Frijtom style, please see

Several variations of the ´Scheveningen decoration´ design are known, in both Japanese and – later - Chinese porcelain. These were mostly dishes, but elements of the design were also used on bowls and cups. Some copies are barely recognisable. 

 

For some examples of variants of the Japanese ´Scheveningen decoration´ design, please see: 

For a similarly, sold, Japanese 'Scheveningen decoration' dish, please see:

An interesting example in the collection of the Groninger Museum: a blank Chinese porcelain dish overdecorated in Delft (the Netherlands) c.1700-1730. The circle was thus made complete, the design having travelled from Delft to Japan and then back to Delft. (Jörg 2003/1, cat. 307a)

 

For this Delft variant, please see:

Another interesting example in this regard, from Meissen, c. 1730:

In the cargo of the Ca Mau shipwreck, c.1725 a total of 80 dishes decorated with the Chine de commande 'Scheveningen decoration' were found. As we know the original designs were traditionally made in Japan for the Dutch. These dishes were so popular that Chinese potters copied them in order to compete with the Japanese. Such copies were already known, but the occurrence in the Ca Mau made it likely that these dishes, and therefore most of the porcelain cargo, were destined for Batavia because only the Dutch would appreciate such specific Chine de commande pieces. (Amsterdam 2007, p.17, lot 223-233 & p.179)

 

For some examples of later Chinese copies of the ´Scheveningen decoration´ design, please see:

This dish is a Kakiemon version of the ´Scheveningen decoration´ design.

 

Fitski describes an identical Kakiemon Nangawara workshop, 'Scheveningen’ dish decorated in underglaze blue. He compares it with two Kakiemon-style 'Scheveningen ' dishes decorated in underglaze blue from the Uchiyama workshop. Fitski notes that the Kakiemon piece has the fine texture characteristic of Nangawara. Also the true Kakiemon piece is made in a mould, the others are not. Furthermore, the painting on the Kakiemon example is more detailed and precise, with finer colour gradations than the two Uchiyama examples. The figures on all the dishes are rather strange and doll-like, but the Kakiemon figures are less stiff than the others. Overall, the painting of the Kakiemon-style dishes is more simplified. Other clues are provided when Fitski looks at the back of the plate. One is the fuku mark in seal script. Only the Kakiemon dish has a mark, very similar to our dish. Pieces with high-quality painting invariably bear an equally well-written mark and a mark can thus help to confirm identification. However, since some marks found on Kakiemon pieces from Nangawara workshops were also used on products from Uchiyama workshops, one cannot use it as the sole identifying characteristic. The most common mark by far is 'fuku' within a double-lined square, originally a Chinese commendation mark. This cursively written mark in different variants has come to be seen as the hallmark of Nangawara pieces from the period 1670 to 1700. On these pieces, the mark is neatly drawn and the calligraphy of the character is fluent but careful. The fuku variant on the base of object 2011767 seems to have been used around 1680 to 1700. (Jörg 2003/1, cat. 309), (Fitski 2011, p.164)

 

Looking at the reverse, this Kakiemon example also has a characteristic decoration with stylised foliate scrolls. One of the Kakiemon-style dishes does have a similar foliate scroll decoration, but it is less carefully painted. Furthermore, the Kakiemon example has a smoothly finished footring, just as on our dish. The Uchiyama examples still have sand adhering to theirs. The difference in the colour of the body is also evident in the footring: the Kakiemon dish is whiter. Lastly, the Kakiemon piece Fitski describes has one small, neat spur mark, while those on the other dishes are larger and less neat. If we look at our dish the four spur-marks are also very neat. (Fitski 2011, pp.94-95

 

For similarly Kakiemon Nangawara 'Scheveningen decoration' dishes decorated in underglaze blue, please see:

For a similarly Kakiemon-style Uchiyama 'Scheveningen decoration' dishes decorated in underglaze blue, please see:

Underneath a comparison between the Kakiemon 'Scheveningen decoration' dish and a later Japanese and Chinese version.

 

201176720107492010145

 2011767 reverse2010749 reverse2011145 reverse

Kakiemon version, c.1680-1700         Japanese version, c.1700                    Chinese version, c.1720-1735

 

Condition: Two frits to the rim.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1966, cat. 272 

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 65 & 65 

Corbeiller 1974, cat. 10 

Howard & Ayers 1978, cat. 32 & 32a 

Jenyns 1979, cat. 19a. (i) & (ii) 

Arts 1983, Plate 57 

Hervouët 1986, cat. 4.20 & 4.21 

Terwee 1989, pp.494-501 

Ayers, Impey & Mallet 1990, cat. 67 & 301 

Howard 1994, cat. 11 

London 1997, cat. 75 

Arita 2000, cat. 118  

Impey 2002, cat. 391, 392, 393 & 394 

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 306 & 307, 307a, 308, 309, 310 & 311 

Kyushu 2003, cat. 2549

Amsterdam 2007, p.17, lot 223-233 

Antonin & Suebsman 2009, cat. 98 & 99 

Fitski 2011, p.164 & cat 105, 106 & 107 

Schölvinck 2010, pp. 56-57 

Sargent 2012, cat. 42 

 

Price: Sold.

 

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Sold Kakiemon style wares

2012060
2012060

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kakiemon / Kakiemon-style wares - Kakiemon-style wares - Page 1

 

Object 2012060

 

Saucer

 

Japan

 

1670-1690

 

Height 23 mm (0.90 inch), diameter of rim 118 mm (4.65 inch), diameter of footring 64 mm or (2.52 inch), weight 73 grams (2.27 ounce (oz.)) 

 

Saucer on footring, short flat rim with slightly upturned edge. On the base a single spur-mark. Decorated in Kakiemon-type enamels with flowering prunus, bamboo and pine growing from brushwood fences. The reverse is undecorated. Kiln-grit adhering to the footring.

 

This saucer is representative of a group of pieces without a nigoshide body. The quality of their porcelain bodies, with some impurities or kiln-grit on the front and back, and decoration is mediocre. Such pieces were not made by the Kakiemon kiln, but by contemporary competitors. (Jörg 2003/1, p.75, cat. 62 & p.76 cat. 63)

 

The Three Friends of Winter (shôchikubai) are pine, Prunus mune and bamboo. Both pine and bamboo remain green throughout the winter, while the early blossoms of the Prunus mune are harbingers of spring. In China, the combination of the positive characteristics attributed to each motif represented the ideal character of the Confucian scholar. They became a subject in Japanese painting in the 15th century, and are also found on Kakiemon porcelain. (Fitski 2011, p.154

 

In China, the blossoms of the Prunus mume (ume) symbolize purity and renewal, and occur very early on in Chinese painting, frequently in combination with pine and bamboo. In Japan, it primarily heralds the coming of spring, and is also used in art and literature to evoke the feel of the cold of winter loosening its grip. The delicate scent of the blossoms also evokes memories of a love one for many poets. The incisively painted, angular branches of the Prunus mume are a very characteristic element of Kakiemon, mostly depicted with fine black lines and clear red blossoms against the white porcelain. The blossoms are sometimes blown up to almost chrysanthemum-like proportions, and it is mostly depicted in a fairly stylized manner. Bamboo (take) is evergreen, and pliable, yet very strong. It is quick to recover after a heavy snowfall or a storm. In Japan, these qualities have led to its representation of indomitability, and the posture that a wise person should adopt, particularly in times of adversity. On kakiemon, bamboo has this connotation primarily in combination with Prunus mune and pine. The pine tree (matsu), an evergreen capable of living to extreme old age, represents power, a long and happy life, and even immortality. On Kakiemon porcelain we see it depicted as an old, venerable tree, but also sometimes as a young shoot, in combination with the crane. The brushwood fence (shibagaki) is made of bundles of twigs tied together, it is frequently combined with a bamboo trellis, an enlarged branch of flowering tree peony, and a shishi. It is a motif that occurs frequently on Kakiemon, with or without these companions, and one which evidently appealed greatly to the European consumer, given the fact that it is often seen on European imitations of Kakiemon. (Fitski 2011, p.148, p.151, pp.153-154 & p.163)

 

For an identically shaped and Kakiemon decorated saucer, please see:

For a spoon or leak tray, over-decorated in The Netherlands with the Kakiemon brushwood fence and shishi design please see:

Condition: Some glaze impurities, a fleabite to the footring, two hairlines and a shallow chip to the rim.

 

References:

Impey 2002, cat. 244

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 62 & p.76 cat. 63

Fitski 2011, p.148, p.151, pp.153-154 & p.163

  

Price: Sold.

 

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2011910A
2011910A

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kakiemon / Kakiemon style wares - Kakiemon style wares - Page 1

 

Object 2011910A

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1680-1700 

 

Height 30 mm (1.18 inch), diameter of rim 220 mm (8.66 inch), diameter of footring 119 mm (4.69 inch), weight 380 grams (13.40 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring with a flat rim. On the base four spur-marks in a Y-pattern. Decorated in underglaze blue with two Hó-ó birds perched on a rock amongst chrysanthemums and peonies. On the sides and rim a border with birds, flowers and scrolling foliage. The reverse is undecorated.

 

In Japan the bird on the rock, the Hó-ó, is a mythological animal, emblematic of imperial authority. It is considered a symbol of wisdom, strength and also an inhabitant of the Buddhist Paradise. According to legend it would perch only on a kiri- or Paulownia Imperialis tree (Chinese: Wu t’ung). Carving the wood of the kiri is an art form in Japan and China. Several Asian string instruments are made from it, including the Japanese koto. The leaves and blossom of the Paulownia Imperialis became the official crest (mon) of the Empress of Japan. The kiri tree is emblematic of rectitude (Arts 1983, p.133 & 149)

 

According to Fitski Kakiemon production can be divided into two groups: pieces made in Nangawara which we call 'Kakiemon' and pieces made in Uchiyama, for which we use the appellation 'Kakiemon style'. This dish is representative of a group of pieces, mainly dishes, without the milky-white nigoshide body which is the main characteristic of Kakiemon. In this case, the porcelain is greyish with some impurities or kiln grit on the front and back. Such pieces were not made by the Kakiemon kiln, but by contemporary competitors and are therefore referred to as Kakiemon style. (Jörg 2003/1, p.75 & cat. 62), (Fitski 2011, pp.70-71, p.90 & p.97)

 

For similarly shaped, sized and in underglaze blue, Kakiemon style decorated dishes, please see

For a similarly, in underglaze blue with enamels, Kakiemon style decorated dish, please see:

Condition: A chip to the rim.

 

References:

Arts 1983, p.133 & 149

London 1997, cat. 49

Jörg 2003/1, p.75 & cat. 62

Kyushu 2003, cat. 1545

Fitski 2011, pp.70-71, p.90 & p.97, cat. 108, 109 & 110

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2012046
2012046

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kakiemon / Kakiemon style wares - Kakiemon style wares - Page 1

 

Object 2012046

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1670-1700 

 

Height 41 mm (1.61 inch), diameter of rim 252 mm (9.92 inch), diameter of footring 133 mm (5.23 inch), weight 582 grams (20.53 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, straight sides. Decorated in Kakiemon type enamels. In the centre a riverscape with two boats near an island in the river, two figures crossing a bridge Pagodas with pine trees, distant huts in the mountains within a double circle in underglaze blue. On the sides three groups of rocks in underglaze blue with flowering peony, camelia and fruiting pomegranate, in enamels. The reverse is undecorated. 

 

According to Fitski Kakiemon production can be divided into two groups: pieces made in Nangawara which we call 'Kakiemon' and pieces made in Uchiyama, for which we use the appellation 'Kakiemon style'. This dish is representative of a group of pieces, mainly dishes, without the  milky-white nigoshide body which is the main characteristic of Kakiemon.  In this case, the porcelain is greyish with some impurities or kiln grit on the front and back. Such pieces were not made by the Kakiemon kiln, but by contemporary competitors and are therefore referred to as Kakiemon style. (Jörg 2003/1, p.75 & cat. 62), (Fitski 2011, pp.70-71, p. 90 & p.97)

 

For an identically, Uchiyama made, in 'Kakiemon style' decorated dish, please see:

For identically and similarly Kakiemon (not Uchiyama made in 'Kakiemon style) decorated dishes, please see:

Condition: A firing flaw to the reverse wall.

 

References:

Amsterdam 1972. cat. nr. 215

Oxford 1981, cat. 194

Kyushu 1990,cat. 294.

Impey 2002, cat. 168, 169 & 170

Jörg 2003/1, p.75 & cat. 62

Kyushu 2003, cat. 1615

Impey, Jörg & Mason 2009, Fig, 79

Fitski 2011, pp.70-71, p.90 & p.97, cat. 109

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011853
2011853

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kakiemon / Kakiemon style wares - Kakiemon style wares - Page 1

 

Object 2011853

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1670-1700 

 

Height 30 mm (1.18 inch), diameter of rim 193 mm (7.60 inch), diameter of footring 120 mm (4.72 inch), weight 293 grams (10.34 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring. On the base five spur-marks in an X-pattern. Decorated in Kakiemon type enamels. In the centre with a Hó-ó bird, standing on one leg, on rockwork flanked by flowering peony and chrysanthemum plants in iron-red, within a double circle in underglaze blue. On the sides four groups of rocks with flowering plants. On the reverse a continuous spray in underglaze blue. Round the foot an underglaze blue line, on the base a wide circle in underglaze blue. 

 

In Japan the bird on the rock, the Hó-ó, is a mythological animal, emblematic of imperial authority. It is considered  a symbol of wisdom, strength and also an inhabitant of the Buddhist Paradise. According to legend it would perch only on a kiri- or Paulownia Imperialis tree (Chinese: Wu t’ung). Carving the wood of the kiri is an art form in Japan and China. Several Asian string instruments are made from it, including the Japanese koto. The leaves and blossom of the Paulownia Imperialis became the official crest (mon) of the Empress of Japan. The kiri tree is emblematic of rectitude (Arts 1983, p.133 & 149)

 

According to Fitski Kakiemon production can be divided into two groups: pieces made in Nangawara which we call 'Kakiemon' and pieces made in Uchiyama, for which we use the appellation 'Kakiemon style'. This dish is representative of a group of pieces, mainly dishes, without the  milky-white nigoshide body which is the main characteristic of Kakiemon.  In this case, the porcelain is greyish with some impurities or kiln grit on the front and back. Such pieces were not made by the Kakiemon kiln, but by contemporary competitors and are therefore referred to as Kakiemon style. (Jörg 2003/1, p.75 & cat. 62), (Fitski 2011, pp.70-71, p. 90 & p.97)

 

For an almost identically, in Kakiemon style, decorated dish with two instead of one Hó-ó birds, please see:

For similarly Uchiyama made and in 'Kakiemon style' decorated dishes, please see:

Condition: A frit to the rim.

 

References:

Reichel 1981, cat. 26

Arts 1983, p.133 & 149

Jörg 2003/1, p.75 & cat. 62

Fitski 2011, pp.70-71, p.90 & p.97, cat. 108, 109 & 110

Campen & Eliëns 2014, p.148, Fig. 16

 

Price: Sold.

 

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