Pater Gratia Oriental Art

Sold Ceramics


Sold Red & Gold / Rouge-de-Fer 1690-1730


Western Shapes


Page 1

This type of porcelain with decorations painted in iron-red, gold and some black enamel, is traditionally called melk en bloed, (which literarily translates as milk and blood). Interestingly, in The Netherlands in the 18th century the name was also applied to a specific type of imported Indian chintz, with predominantly red decorations on a light ground. The composition and iconography usely conform to the normal export assortment of blue-and-white Kangxi porcelain of c.1700. The dating of early 18th century is confirmed by the existence of some Red & Gold objects in the collection of August the Strong (1670-1733). Apparently, this type of porcelain was popular mainly among the Dutch and the very few pieces that can be found elsewhere in Europe usually come from The Netherlands. (Lunsingh Scheurleer 1989), (Jörg 2002/2)


Sold Ceramics - Sold Red & Gold / Rouge-de-Fer 1690-1730 - Western Shapes - Page 1


Object 2011851








Height with mount 210 mm (8.27 inch), diameter of mouthrim 95 mm (3.74 inch), diameter of footring 125 mm (4.92 inch), weight 1,075 grams (37.92 ounce (oz.))


Tankard of cylindrical shape with a C-shaped handle and an unglazed base. Mounted with a 19th / 20th century Belgium silver mount (marked). Decorated in 'Red & Gold' / 'Rouge-de-fer' and gold on the glaze with three groups of flowering peony sprays. Around the foot a pointed leaves pattern border, the rim with a diaper pattern border with flower heads. On the handle a floret between scrolls.


The Belgium silver mount is marked; 'simonet' & '900'. 'simonet' refers to the Brussels based firm 'Simonet & Vansteeger' who specialised in silver work designs in the 19th and 20th centuries. '900' refers to the purity mark of the silver used.


For centuries lo-alcoholic beer had been a common less risky alternative to water, which often was quite polluted. There has therefore been a long design tradition of beer ware such as beer jugs, mugs and crucibles. As soon as the possibility arose of having porcelain copies of all kinds of practical Dutch (household) ware manufactured in China, beer jugs were also often made to order there. Both tall straight models as well as bulbous types were available. In Japan beer mugs were only manufactured for trade during a short period of time in the late 17th century. The existence of Delft copies of these jugs illustrates that there must have been a considerable demand for them in the Netherlands in those days. (source: Groninger Museum)


The mug is undoubtedly copied from a European silver original. Europe had always used a wide variety of materials for drinking vessels, including silver, pewter, leather, horn, pottery and glass. Efforts made by merchants in the China trade in the 17th and 18th centuries to develop Chinese porcelain as an alternative material (both for drinking and for pouring vessels) met with varying success. The main rivalry was between porcelain and glass and while the use of porcelain for hot beverages has now become almost universal, for other uses it was to prove less successful. (Howard 1994, p.186 & p.193)


Condition: A firing flaw to the handle.



Howard 1994, p.186 & p.193

Groninger Museum


Price: Sold.


More pictures >>

2011665 and 2011666
2011665 and 2011666

Sold Ceramics - Sold Red & Gold / Rouge-de-Fer 1690-1730 - Western Shapes - Page 1


Objects 2011665 and 201166


Small mug




2011665: Height 62 mm (2.44 inch), diameter of rim 59 mm (2.32 inch), diameter of footring 60 mm (2.36 inch), weight 140 grams (4.94 ounce (oz.))  


2011666: Height 62 mm (2.44 inch), diameter of rim 63 mm (2.48 inch), diameter of footring 63 mm (2.48 inch), weight 137 grams (4.83 ounce (oz.)) 


Two small mug with handle on flat, unglazed bases. Around the bases moulded circular ribs. Decorated in 'Red & Gold' / 'Rouge-de-fer' with iron-red and gold on the glaze with peacock feathers and coral branches in a large flower vase decorated with a flowering plant. The flower vase is placed on leaves and flanked by flower sprays. Round the rims a trellis pattern borders with four reserves filled with a half flower head. On the handles single flowering stems.


The large peacock feathers are a symbol of high rank, the coral branch stands for longevity. (Lunsingh Scheurleer 1974, p. 222)



2011665: A firing tension hairline to the handle and a (restored) frit to the rim.

2011666: A hairline to the rim.



Lunsingh Scheurleer 1974, p. 222


Price: Sold.


More pictures of object 2011665 >>

More pictures of object 2011666 >>