Pater Gratia Oriental Art

Chinese Porcelain

 

Polychrome wares other since 1722

 

Page 1

2010778 and 2010779
2010778 and 2010779

Polychrome wares other since 1722 - Page 1

 

Objects 2010778 and 2010779

 

Two tea caddies

China

1730-1740

 

2010778: Height including cover 114 mm (4.49 inch), height excluding cover 101 mm (3.98 inch), dimensions 63 mm (2.48 inch) x 62 mm (2.44 inch), weight with cover 265 grams (9.35 ounce (oz.)), weight cover 7 grams (0.25 ounce (oz.))

2010779: Height including cover 118 mm (4.64 inch), height excluding cover 100 mm (3.94 inch), dimensions 66 mm (2.60 inch) x 67 mm (2.64 inch), weight with cover 277 grams (9.77 ounce (oz.)), weight cover 6 grams (0.21 ounce (oz.))

 

Two tea caddies of square form with canted corners, four flat feet at the corners, flat shoulder with a short unglazed upright neck. The original covers are missing and replaced with wooden covers. Polychrome decorated in iron-red, gold and various overglaze enamels with flowering plants and a grass hopper alternating with flowering lotus and lily and a crane with a bird in flight. Round the shoulder a floral border on an iron-red speckled ground. On the flat shoulder, in each corner, a single flower spray. On the base of object 2010779 an old rectangular paper label that reads: 'Period of Emperor K'ANG-HSI 1660-1722'.

 

For an identically shaped, sized and decorated, sold tea caddy, please see:

For an identically shaped and sized and similarly decorated, sold tea caddy, please see:

Condition:

2010778: Some glaze rough spots to the edges and a fleabite and frit to the mouthrim.

2011779: Some glaze rough spots to the edges.

 

Price: € 749 - $ 889 - £ 667

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2010C304
2010C304

Polychrome wares other since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2010C304

 

Dish

 

China

 

1730-1735

 

Height 27 mm (1.06 inch), diameter of rim 223 mm (8.78 inch), diameter of footring 112 mm (4.41 inch), weight 298 grams (10.51 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkou). Decorated in various enamels, such as blue, iron-red, pink, turquoise and yellow in the centre with a two-handled flowerpot standing on a low tablle, filled with a pomegranate, finger lemon or Buddha’s Hand citron and a peach. On the sides four flowering irises. On the rim four groups of flowers and objects: a pomegranate peel and a lotus flower bound together with a calligraphy brush and a halberd, alternating with a lotus flower with a bowl of dried seeds on top bound together with a chrysanthemum flower and a ruyi sceptre. On the reverse two flowering peony sprays.

 

In the flowerpot three fruits are visible which all play a distinctive role in Chinese symbolism as well as daily life; the pomegranate, finger lemon and peach.

 

The pomegranate (punica granatum), here to the left, is not indigenous to China. It was introduced in the Han dynasty (206 BC-AD 220) from Afghanistan. As a flowering shrub, with its handsome single and double blossoms, ranging in colour from white through pale pink to dark red, it is much cultivated in China. 

 

Pomegranate2

 

Pomegranate blossom, fruit and seeds, illustration by Otto Wilhelm Thomé (1840-1925), Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz in Wort und Bild für Schule und Haus (Flora of Germany, Austria and Switzerland in Word and Picture for School and Home), Germany 1885

 

The flowers are used with iron to make a hair-dye, the root is given as a tonic, and the dried pericarp or peel (as shown on the rim of this dish) is regarded as an astringent and anti-rheumatic remedy and also prescribed in the treatment of dysentery and diseases of the eye.

 

In Chinese, the pomegranate is called shi liu (石榴). Shi liu sounds the same as ‘sixteen’ and because of that the pomegranate is associated with commemorating a sixteenth birthday. In symbolism, a pomegranate may also represent a wish for a title to be continued into the next generation as shì means ‘generation; noble’.

The half-opened fruit reveals numerous seeds in auspicious red. The word seeds, zi, is in Chinese homophonous to zi meaning children or sons. Thus, the pomegranate became a well-established emblem of fertility and abundant male offspring. A picture of children with a ripe, half-open pomegranate is a very popular wedding present. It will bear the inscription liú kāi bǎi zi, (ǐ榴开百子), ‘the pomegranate brings forth a hundred seeds/sons.’

The pomegranate blossoms in the 5th Chinese lunar month, in the summer. Together with the orchid, iris and wild apple it is one of the blossoms of the four seasons.

 

The fingered lemon (var. citrus sarcodactylis) or Buddha’s Hand (foshou;佛手柑) is an inedible bright yellow citron with long segments that grow out of its stem, which resembles the hand position of the Buddha in meditation (dhyana mudra).

A lone citron is often regarded as representing ‘happiness’ and ‘longevity’. This is because the similarity in sound of ‘Fo’ (Buddha) and ‘Fu’ (happiness) and ‘shou’ which depending on the pronunciation can mean both hand and longevity. Buddha's hand fruit is very fragrant and is used predominantly in China, Malaysia and Japan for perfuming rooms and personal items such as clothing.

  

 Vingercitroen

  

A. Poiteau: 'Limone digitata (multiforme)' (Citrus medica sarcodactylis), aquarel op perkament (watercolour on parchment), 1808

 

The peach (xiantao; 仙桃) tree or fruit in China is heavily overlaid with symbolism. Its wood and its colour kept demons at bay, its petals could cast spells on men and the peaches of immortality ripened only once in a thousand years. The peach is first of all a strong symbol of longevity; it is the symbol of the God of Longevity, Shoulao. It is also an emblem of marriage and springtime, because the peach tree blossoms in February, the time of the traditional Chinese New Year, an auspicious time to get married. Peach blossom is a standard decoration for the New Year. Like the pomegranate, it has many medicinal uses. For example, the fruit is said to be efficacious in lung diseases, the flowers are used as a laxative, the bark is given in jaundice or hydrophobia and the sap is a sedative.

 

PeachThome 

  

Peach flower, fruit, seed and leaves, illustration by Otto Wilhelm Thomé (1840-1925), Germany 1885.

 

These three auspicious fruits combined are known as the Three Abundances or Three Plenties (sanduo; 三多). The pomegranate represents progeny, the peach longevity and the Buddha’s Hand happiness or spiritual blessings, in short, a wish for a long life, an abundance of sons and riches.

 

On the rim, we see four clusters of flowers and objects. One of the objects is a halberd (Ji;戟), a long-handled axe or pole axe, with one or two crescent-like blades on the side. 

 

thumbnail_Halberd

 

The Chinese Halberd or Ji (戟)

 

It shares a homophone with a number of auspicious meanings, such as ji meaning ‘good fortune, lucky, auspicious’ and also ‘steps’ as in ‘grades’; three halberds in a vase is a well-known motif for expressing the desire for three official promotions, which can be found frequently on textiles and porcelain. 

Combined with a ruyi scepter or wish-granting wand the interpretation can be ‘May your luck and fortune be as you desire.’ 

 

The lotus (lian hua; 蓮花) also occurs prominently on the rim. It bears its flowers and seedpods simultaneously and is therefore a well-known symbol of fertility and prosperity. Liánzi (蓮子), its (dried) seed (here in bowls on top of the lotus) can mean either lotus seeds or is a pun for a full wallet or continuous sons. The lotus is the flower of the sixth month, the flower of summer. Like the pomegranate, the entire plant is also used medicinally, it is for example prescribed for both alcohol and mushroom poisoning. 

 

The combination of pomegranate and lotus means ‘May you continuously give birth to sons.’ Shown together, they sent a prominent message of numerous progeny. The occurrence of both lotus and a ruyi sceptre or wish-granting wand carries the wish that ‘all your desires will come true year after year,’ the brush, bi, combined with a ruyi means the same. The presence of a chrysanthemum, familiar symbol of longevity, and the calligraphy brush of the scholar, bi, which is also a homophone for bi meaning ‘certainly’ or ‘surely’, seem to emphasize and enhance all these wishes even more. 

 

Condition: A firing flaw, some frits and a chip to the inner footing, a fleabite and a short glaze hairline (only visible at the front) to the rim 

 

References: 

Williams 1976, p.51, pp.315-317, pp.332-333 & p.409 

Eberhard 1986, p.50, pp.104-105, pp 240-241 & pp. 227-228

Bartholomew 2006, cat. 2.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.23.5, 4.5, 5.11, 6.2, 7.11, 7.44, 7.44.3, 9.7.1 & 9.12

Bjaalland Welch 2008, p. 55, pp. 28-30, pp. 48-49, pp. 57-58,p. 253, pp. 258-259, p. 264

Ströber 2011, p. 75, pp. 156-157, p. 160, pp. 192-195

 

Price: € 249 - $ 278 - £ 215

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2010C226
2010C226

Polychrome wares other since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2010C226

 

Sauce boat

 

China

 

1740-1750

 

Height 88 mm (3.46 inch), width 110 mm (4.33 inch), length handle to spout 246 mm (9.69 inch), dimensions of foot 93 mm x 75 mm (3.66 inch x 2.95 inch), weight 434 grams (15.31 ounce (oz.))

  

Sauce boat standing on an oval base, slightly waisted. The everted underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkouis moulded in an undulating form. A turned over spout at one end, a higher arched loop handle on the other end. Decorated in underglaze blue, iron-red, gold and other overglaze enamels. The wavy rim is decorated with a double dark blue line, underneath which are three alternating panels. One is a white square with double-lined dark blue border, filled with a red flower. The next is a pale pink flower in a white lobed cartouche against a rose diaper pattern background. The third panel is a white lobed cartouche filled with a pale pink flower against a dark blue background, decorated with golden lacy network. Directly underneath the rim, on the inside of the sauce boat, there are alternating half-round panels. One is filled with a golden lacy network and lotus flower against a dark blue background, surrounded by a red border. The next is filled with a pale pink lotus flower with a rose diaper pattern background surrounded by a blue border. On the bottom of the sauce boat a riverscape with in the foreground several types of trees on rocks, with a little house on the far right and a bridge in the middle. In the background again trees on rocks and a pagoda. On the loop handle a single flowering stem. The oval foot with double blue line is hollow and glazed.

 

Sauce boats were introduced to the dinner table at the beginning of the 18th century. The fashion in the rest of Europe probably derived from the late 17th century French court, were as early as 1690 silver sauce boats with two spouts and handles were reported. In fact, some of the first early 18th century porcelain sauce boats in Imari style were made in this very form. Many Chinese export porcelain sauce boats derived from examples in silver, but were also modelled after earthenware and European porcelain examples. Sauce boats could be ordered separately, but by 1740-50 were almost always part of a dinner service. One of the earliest known dinner services, which also had sauce boats, was the service privately ordered in 1731 by Charles Peers, Mayor of London and Director of the English East India Company. The first separate sauce boats were shipped by the Dutch VOC no earlier than 1750, at the same time the VOC ordered the first true dinner services.

 

This sauce boat shows a clear resemblance to a type of sauceboat found on the East India man Geldermalsen, which sank in the evening of January 3, 1752 en route from Canton to the Netherlands. For examples of this sauce boat with similar form, please see:

With respect to the decoration and dating, it is also interesting to note that the particular motif of golden lacy network against a dark blue (or other colour) background, is called caillouté (‘pebbled decoration’) and was first seen on Sèvres porcelain around the middle of the eighteenth century.

  

For an example of a part dinner service with identical decoration, dated 1740, from the Hodroff collection, please see:

For another tureen and cover, with the same decoration, formerly part of the Benjamin Edwards III collection, please see:

For an identically decorated dish, please see:

Condition: A few tiny glaze rough spots to the edge of the rim and a glaze frit to the rim.  

  

References:

Jörg 1982/1, pp.183-184, p.282

Jörg 1986/1, pp.62-63

Sheaf & Kilburn 1988, plate 180-181

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1989, p.161, pp.176-177

Howard 1994, cat.124

New York 2004/1, lot 124

Fuchs & Howard 2005, cat. 51

New York 2008, lot 267

Sargent 2012, p.183

 

Price: € 499 - $ 555 - £ 450

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011980
2011980

Polychrome wares other since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2011980

 

Saucer

 

China

 

c.1730

 

Height 33 mm (1.30 inch), diameter of rim 155 mm (6.10 inch), diameter of footring 90 mm (3.54 inch), weight 114 grams (4.02 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, spreading straight sides. Decorated in overglaze iron-red, gold and black enamel with two birds perched on a rock flanked by various flowering plants and a butterfly in flight. Round the rim a floral scroll border with flower heads. The reverse is undecorated.

 

This saucer is a good example of a very varied group from the Yongzheng period (1723-1736) painted with birds and insects which was probably appreciated by 18th century Chinese as well as Western buyers.

 

For a similarly sized and shaped saucer, decorated with a remarkable combination of shells, flowers, plants and butterflies. please see:

For a sold and published Yongzheng bowl decorated with butterflies insects, please see:

Condition: Wear to the decoration, three hairlines, two fleabites a frit and a frit with a connected hairline to the rim. A X-shaped hairline to the base.

 

Reference:

Jörg 1995, cat. 35

 

Price: € 349 - $ 388 - £ 315

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011412
2011412

Polychrome wares other since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2011412

 

Coffee cup

 

China

 

1740-1760

 

Height 65 mm (2.56 inch), diameter of rim 55 mm (2.17 inch), diameter of footring 26 mm (1.02 inch), weight 73 grams (2.96 ounce (oz.))

 

Coffee cup with handle on a footring and an underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkou). Polychrome decorated in black, gold and other overglaze enamels. Decorated with a shore landscape with nine ducks, (five in the water, three on land and one in flight), and three nests with eggs, a man is sitting against a tree trying to catch the ducks. Around the rim an intertwined scroll pattern border.

 

Condition: A frit to the rim and a firing tension hairline to the handle.

 

References:

Jörg 1982/1, fig. 46

Jörg 1986/1, fig. 56

Sargent 2012, p.183

 

Price: € 249 - $ 277 - £ 224

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2010310
2010310

Polychrome wares other since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2010310

  

Teacup and saucer

 

China

 

1730-1750

 

Height of teacup 42 mm (1.65 inch), diameter of rim 72 mm (2.83 inch), diameter of footring 32 mm (1.26 inch), weight 49 grams (1.73 ounce (oz.))

Height of saucer 24 mm (0.94 inch), diameter of rim 116 mm (4.57 inch), diameter of footring 72 mm (2.83 inch), weight 64 grams (2.26 ounce (oz.))

 

Teacup and saucer on footrings with straight underglaze brown-edged rims (jia mangkou). Both polychrome decorated in underglaze blue, iron-red, gold and other overglaze enamels. In the centre of the saucer a roundel with a lotus surrounded by a zig-zag lines pattern border and four cartouches filled with a flower head. On the interior wall two flowering prunus and orchid plants. The exterior wall is similarly decorated with two whole and two half chrysanthemum flower heads. The teacup is decorated on the exterior wall with two flowering prunus and orchid plants, round the foot a zig-zag lines pattern border and four cartouches filled with a flower head, On the bottom a single flowering lotus and on the interior wall two whole and one half chrysanthemum. Round the rim a zig-zag lines pattern border and four cartouches filled with a flower head.

 

The set is exquisitely decorated by the Chinese decorator in a Japanese Imari style, see the reverse side of the saucer.

  

Condition teacup: A fleabite to the footring.

Condition saucer: Perfect.

 

Reference:

Sargent 2012, cat. 87

 

Price: € 249 - $ 277 - £ 224

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2010C239
2010C239

Polychrome wares other since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2010C239

 

Dish

 

China

 

1710-1730

 

Height 50 mm (1.97 inch), diameter of rim 300 mm (11.81 inch), diameter of footring 170 mm (6.69 inch), weight 858 grams (30.27 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring with a straight underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkou). Decorated in underglaze blue and famille verte enamels, iron-red, black enamel and gold with a flowering tree in a central roundel surrounded by a spearhead border. On the sides four cartouches filled with flowering plants and flanked by half flower heads reserved on a stylized leafy ground with single flower heads On the rim four groups of flowering chrysanthemum and lotus plants amongst a stylized depicting of water. On the reverse two peony flower sprays.

 

Tree-worship was widely spread throughout China in ancient times, as is evidenced for a long time by the reluctance of the people to cut down trees in the neighbourhood of temples and graves. Often, the shrine of a local god was placed at the roots or in the fork of a tree remarkable for its size and beauty.  It was believed that the soul of the god resides in the tree, which is therefore held to be sacred. If dug up or cut down, the person doing so was liable to die. There are many references in Chinese literature to trees that bleed and utter cries of pain or indignation when hewed down. A strip of red cloth or paper is often attached to a tree in order to keep it safe from the spirits of evil, who always avoid that particular colour of happiness and good fortune. (Williams 1976, pp.407-408)

 

Condition: A Y-shaped hairline to the rim and a frit and two fleabites to the footring. 

 

References:

Williams 1976, pp.407-408

Sargent 2012, p.183

 

Price: € 599 - $ 667 - £ 541

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2010740
2010740

Polychrome wares other since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2010740

 

Teacup and saucer

 

China

 

1740-1760

 

Height of teacup 46 mm (1.81 inch), diameter of rim 85 mm (3.35 inch), diameter of footring 40 mm (1.57 inch), weight 62 grams (2.19 ounce (oz.))

Height of saucer 28 mm (1.10 inch), diameter of rim 144 mm (5.67 inch), diameter of footring 84 mm (3.31 inch), weight 115 grams (4.06 ounce (oz.))

 

Teacup and saucer on footrings with moulded walls in the shape of lotus leaves and scalloped rims. Covered with a light-celadon green glaze and decorated in underglaze blue, iron-red and gold with a river scape with pagodas, flowering plants and trees. On the rims a trellis pattern border. 

 

Condition saucer: Perfect.

Condition teacup: Perfect.

 

Price: € 299 - $ 333 - £ 270

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011479 and 2011480
2011479 and 2011480

Polychrome wares other since 1722 - Page 1

 

Objects 2011479 and 2011480

 

Pair of dishes

 

China

 

c.1720

 

2011479: height 47 mm (1.85 inch), diameter of rim 255 mm (10.00 inch), diameter of footring 145 mm (5.71 inch), weight 516 grams (18.20 ounce (oz.))

2011480: height 47 mm (1.85 inch), diameter of rim  260 mm (10.23 inch), diameter of footring 147 mm (5.79 inch), weight 518 grams (18.27 ounce (oz.))

 

A pair of fluted dishes on footrings, with gently curving ribbed sides, ribbed rims and scalloped underglaze brown-edges (jia mangkou). Polychrome decorated in iron-red, black, gold and other overglaze enamels. The central medallion shows a flowering peony, chrysanthemum and bamboo tree growing from pierced rockwork, in double concentric band. On the cavetto four groups of flowering chrysanthemum alternating with flowering peony. On the inside rim a decorative pattern border with four rosettes and four cartouches filled with a flower spray. On the exterior rim a decorative pattern border with four rosettes and on the exterior wall two flower sprays.

 

The Pæonia arborea, or tree peony, is an emblem of love and affection, King of flowers and a symbol of Spring and feminine beauty. The Chrysanthemum indicum is an emblem of mid-autumn and symbol of joviality. Flower of the 9th month and generally associated with a life of ease, and retirement from public office. The Bambusa arundinacea, or bamboo, is an emblem of longevity owing probably to its durability, and to the fact that it is evergreen and flourishes throughout the winter. It is commonly known as "the friend of China" and in ancient times bamboo tablets were used instead of books. (Williams 1976, pp.33-34, 69-70 & 320-321)

 

Condition:

2011479: A fleabite to the exterior rim and a shallow frit to the footring. Wear to the golden decoration.

2011480: Two firing flaws and two popped bubbles of glaze to the exterior rim. A shallow frit to the interior rim. Some wear to the iron-red decoration.

 

References:

Williams 1976, pp.33-34, 69-70 & 320-321

Sargent 2012, p.183

 

Price: € 1.499 - $ 1,669 - £ 1.354

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2010746
2010746

Polychrome wares other since 1722 - Page 1

 

Object 2010746

 

Saucer

 

China

 

1730-1740

 

Height 17 mm (0.67 inch, diameter of rim 105 mm (4.13 inch), diameter of footring 61 mm (2.40 inch), weight 43 grams (1.52 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, straight rim with six small indentations on the edge. Decorated in gold and overglaze blue and white enamel (en camaïeu)In the centre decorated with flower head, on the sides three sprays of flowering peony branches  On the rim a leaves and flower heads pattern border. The reverse is undecorated.

 

The French term, 'en camaïeu', is used to denote a painting almost exclusively done in just one enamel colour. The indented rim is characteristic of a group of well-enamelled tea-wares of a thin, pure body produced during the Yongzheng and Qianlong reigns. (Jörg 1995, p.80), (Jörg & Van Campen 1997, p.213)

 

Condition: Some wear to the gold decoration, a fleabite to the rim with a star-shaped hairline to the base.

 

References:

Jörg 1995, p.80

Jörg & Van Campen 1997, cat. 237

 

Price: € 99 - $ 110 - £ 89

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on their exchange rate to the € price)

 

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