Pater Gratia Oriental Art

Chinese Porcelain

 

Famille Rose wares 1725-1800

 

Page 1

There was great demand for Chinese porcelain in Europe at the end of the 17th century. This led to the production of a variety of shapes and decorations while the competition between private merchants also contributed to a very varied supply. Besides porcelain decorated in underglaze blue, famille verte and Chinese Imari, many other types emerged, decorated with overglaze enamels that were sometimes combined with underglaze blue. The most important development, however, was the use of a pink-red enamel around 1725. Porcelain decorated with this enamel is called famille rose. Within a very short time this type supplanted famille verte and became the popular choice for all kinds of export porcelain. Mixing the rose with white enamel created shades of colour that suggested depth and volume. Famille rose knows a great variety in quality and decorations. The name was invented in the 19th century; before that it was simply called 'enameled'. Rose enamel was first developed in the Imperial workshops in Beijing and applied on enameled copper and bronze objects. Western chemical knowledge introduced by the Jesuits at the court around 1700 probably played a role. Since c.1725 it also was used on porcelain in Jingdezhen. Initially, the colour had a lilac shade but became a proper pink after c.1730. It was applied rather thickly and, unlike the very thin iron-red, can easily be felt on top of the glaze. Rose was applied on all types of export porcelain and there are countless combinations with other enamels.

2012495
2012495

Famille Rose wares 1725-1800 - Page 1

 

Object 2012495

 

Teapot

 

China

 

1730-1740

 

Height with cover 128 mm (5.04 inch), height without cover 97 mm (3.82 inch),  diameter handle to spout 155 mm (6.10 inch), diameter mouthrim 55 mm (2.17 inch), diameter footring 55 mm (2.17 inch), weight with cover 349 grams (12.31 ounce (oz.)), weight cover 64 grams (2.26 ounce (oz.))

 

Pear-shaped teapot on footring. Straight spout with a curved C-shaped handle. The inlaying flat cover with pointed knob. The broken handle handle is fitted with unmarked silver mounts as repair. Decorated in various overglaze, famille rose, enamels on both sides with flowering peony and chrysanthemum sprays. Round the mouthrim reserves filled with half flower heads on a famille rose diaper pattern ground. The cover is decorated en suite. On the inside of the cover an old rectangular jagged paper collectors label with the pencil handwritten number '61'.

 

There was great demand for Chinese porcelain in Europe at the end of the 17th century. This led to the production of a variety of shapes and decorations while the competition between private merchants also contributed to a very varied supply. Besides porcelain decorated in underglaze blue, famille verte and Chinese Imari, many other types emerged, decorated with overglaze enamels that were sometimes combined with underglaze blue. The most important development, however, was the use of a pink-red enamel around 1725. Porcelain decorated with this enamel is called famille rose. Within a very short time this type supplanted famille verte and became the popular choice for all kinds of export porcelain. Mixing the rose with white enamel created shades of colour that suggested depth and volume. Famille rose knows a great variety in quality and decorations. The name was invented in the 19th century; before that it was simply called 'enameled'. Rose enamel was first developed in the Imperial workshops in Beijing and applied on enameled copper and bronze objects. Western chemical knowledge introduced by the Jesuits at the court around 1700 probably played a role. Since c.1725 it also was used on porcelain in Jingdezhen. Initially, the colour had a lilac shade but became a proper pink after c.1730. It was applied rather thickly and, unlike the very thin iron-red, can easily be felt on top of the glaze. Rose was applied on all types of export porcelain and there are countless combinations with other enamels.

 

The most important evidence on the early use of famille rose on porcelain comes from the armorial wares, which can often be dated to within a few years. There are about three thousand armorials known, but among them there are only a few with famille rose decoration that can be dated earlier than 1730. The earliest and most important of these is that of Sir John Lambert, who was a Director of the Honourable East India Company and of the notorious South Seas Company. He was made a baronet in 1711 and died in 1722. We can say with fair certainty that the service with his arms was made not later than 1722. (Garner 1967-69, pp.10-11)

 

Condition: Fring flaws to the spout and inner mouthrim. A fleabite to the tip of the spout and a glaze rough spot to the handle. Flaked of glaze to the tip of the spout.

 

Reference:

Garner 1967-69, pp.10-11

 

Price: € 899 Currency Converter

 

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2011303
2011303

Famille Rose wares 1725-1800 - Page 1

 

Object 2011303

 

Dish

China

1730-1740

 

Height 32 mm (1.26 inch), diameter of rim 224 mm (8.82 inch), diameter of footring 123 mm (4.85 inch), weight 302 grams (10.65 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring with a flat underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkou). Decorated in various famille rose enamels with flowering peony and aster sprays and an insect in flight. On the rim flowering peony sprays alternating with lotus and shells spays. On the reverse four flower sprays. 

 

2011303 c

The shell in the picture looks like a seashell. In fact, it should be a freshwater river snail, or “paddy field” snail, as we call it in the Chinese writing. It is only due to the skill of the artist, giving it a little distortion. The river snail is a common food in southern China, or even in Southeastern Asia.  

 

The white knotted thing on the dish is a lotus root. Lotus has been growing in China mainly for two reasons. One is its beauty. It is almost a must in the garden pond of a mansion. On the other hand, it is a common agricultural plant in the farms. Its seeds and roots are delicious. The starch of the seed is an important ingredient of the moon cake paste. Both the seeds and the roots are used to cook different types of soups. The root can also be made into candy, a nice treat during the New Year festivals. Some people can cook the young stems. The leave (dried or fresh) is sold for wrapping food.  Almost nothing is wasted.

 

Parts of the Lotus

 

Afbeelding1

(Source: https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/26/7/1855)

 

Harvest the lotus roots. 

 

Afbeelding2

(Source: https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/travel/2017-07/09/content_30047051_5.htm#Contentp)

 

Afbeelding3

The river snails, “Paddy Field snail” as in Chinese words.

 

(For the information above I am indebted to Mr. Simon Fan, Australia)

 

The term famille rose was first coined by the 19th-century French author Albert Jacquemart, who distinguished between specific groups in his descriptions of Oriental ceramics. (Jörg 2003/2, p.25)


Condition: Some flaked of pieces of enamel, some fleabites, and a frit to the reverse rim.

 

Reference:

Jörg 2003/2, p.25

 

Price: € 249 Currency Converter

 

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2011026
2011026

Famille Rose wares 1725-1800 - Page 1

 

Object 2011026

 

Teacup and saucer

 

China

 

1730-1740

 

Height of teacup 36 mm (1.42 inch), diameter of rim 65 mm (2.56 inch), diameter of footring 30 mm (1.18 inch), weight 30 grams (1.06 ounce (oz.))

Height of saucer 19 mm (0.75 inch), diameter of rim 105 mm (4.13 inch), diameter of footring 61 mm (2.40 inch), weight 51 grams (1.80 ounce (oz.))

 

Teacup and saucer on footrings with spreading sides and rims, Decorated in various overglaze, famille rose, enamels. Decorated with a roundel filled with a pheasant perched on a pierced taihu (garden) rockwork with flowering lotus, peony and chrysanthemum plants. On the sides three scalloped cartouches filled with a flowering plants reserved on a cell-pattern ground enriched with flower heads. Round the rim a trellis-pattern border. The reverse is undecorated. The teacup is decorated en suite.

 

The pheasant on a taihu (garden) rock is a very popular motif on export porcelain and frequently appears on enamelled and underglaze blue Kangxi wares. According to Williams, in the Chinese bureaucratic hierarchy officials of the second grade had a gold pheasant embroidered on their court robes, those of the fifth grade a silver pheasant. The bird was represented as standing on a rock, looking towards the sun, the imperial symbol of authority. The term 'famille rose' was first coined by the 19th-century French author Albert Jacquemart, who distinguished between specific groups in his descriptions of Oriental ceramics. (Williams 1976, pp.322-323), (Jörg & Van Campen 1997, p.157), (Jörg 2003/2, p.25)

 

Condition teacup: Two frits and two fleabites one with a connected tiny short hairline.

Condition saucer: A firing flaw and a frit to the rim.

 

References:

Jacquemart & Le Blant 1862, pp. 77-105

Williams 1976, pp.322-323

Jörg & Van Campen 1997, cat. 171

Jörg 2003/2, cat. 8

 

Price: € 499 Currency Converter

 

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2012498
2012498

Famille Rose wares 1725-1800 - Page 1

 

Object 2012498

 

Dish

 

China

 

1740-1750

 

Height 37 mm (1.46 inch), diameter of rim 227 mm (8.94 inch), diameter of footring 116 mm (4.57 inch), weight 384 grams (13.55 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. Overall decorated in various famille rose enamels with a river scene showing two cranes on a shore amongst flowering plants and lingzhi on the left and a fenced garden with various flowering plants and lingzhi growing from pierced taihu (garden) rock work with an insect in front. In the water issuing flowering lotus plants. The reverse is undecorated.

 

On this dish the porcelain painter applied the principle of distributing the pattern over the whole surface, leaving significant space without ornamentation. The pattern did not have to be symmetrical, therefore, and the main scene spreads onto the edge, giving the impression of a section of real scenery. On the right side of the dish we see a distinctive rock with a climbing peony in blossom, which is complemented with additional auspicious symbols - a fungus of immortality, a narcissus spray and a cicada. a symbol of the circle of rebirth, moral purity and a noble character. Placed in opposition to the rock design is an island landscape with another symbol of longevity - a pair of cranes by a rock, chrysanthemum and bamboo.

The detailed pattern adopts the painterly genre of flowers and birds and transposes it skilfully to the porcelain surface. In the Qianlong era, when Chinese porcelain for export to Europe sought new ornamental designs, similarly detailed wares were relatively common and we find them in number of European collections. The services really served as everyday wares, which often is evidence by the worn condition of the preserved pieces. In the present case, too, the dish originally formed part of a larger porcelain service, of which only a fragment has been preserved in the Hradec nad Moravici collection. (Suchomel 2015, p.435)

 

For an identically decorated dish, please see:

Condition: Some firing flaws to the base, a frit, three chips, a glaze rough spot and a hairline all to the rim.

 

Reference:

Suchomel 2015, cat. 269

 

Price: € 399 Currency Converter

 

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2011825
2011825

Famille Rose wares 1725-1800 - Page 1

 

Object 2011825

 

Dish

China

1740-60

 

Height 34 mm (1.34 inch), diameter of rim 181 mm (7.13 inch), diameter of footring: 107 mm (4.21 inch), weight 235 grams (8.29 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, straight rim with a scalloped edge. Decorated in various famille rose enamels, iron-red and gold with scattered 'German flowers'. Around the rim a spearhead-pattern border. The reverse is undecorated.

 

This decoration was closely copied by the Chinese porcelain painter from a Meissen or other factory example. The term 'famille rose' was first coined by the 19th-century French author Albert Jacquemart, who distinguished between specific groups in his descriptions of Oriental ceramics. (Jörg 2003/2, p.25).

 

For similarly decorated objects, please see;

Condition: A hairline and some glaze rough spots to the rim.

 

References:

Jacquemart & Le Blant 1862, pp. 77-105

Jörg 1989/2, cat. 93

Jörg 2003/2, cat. 8

Litzenburg 2003, cat. 54

Suchomel 2015, cat. 270

 

Price: € 249 Currency Converter

 

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