Pater Gratia Oriental Art

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Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645

 

Bowls

 

Page 1

Dutch merchants arrived in Asia towards the end of the 16th century. The The Dutch East India Company, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC), was founded in 1602, competed fiercely with the Portuguese as traders. Porcelain from captured Portuguese vessels (caraccas) was called kraak porcelain, a Dutch corruption of the Portuguese word. It was made especially for export in Jingdezhen, the porcelain centre in Jiangxi Province. The VOC shipped it in huge quantities and soon it was a commonplace item in Dutch interiors.

 

Kraak porcelain was primarily bought for practical use but pieces also had decorative functions. The paintings, done in underglaze blue only, show landscapes and animals, rarely human figures, making this porcelain suitable for Islamic markets, too. Buddhist and Daoist good luck symbols make up the panelled border decorations. Plates and dishes were moulded. They are thin, usually rather quickly finished and often have kiln grit adhering to the underside. The glaze on the edge is often retracted. Apart from large dishes, the bases of other objects are glazed, and the V-shaped footring is slightly undercut. Initially, the panels on kraak porcelain were raised, but this feature disappeared at the end of this period.

There are certain general characteristics which can help in the recognition of Kraak Bowls.

 

The rim is always foliated with the exception of one type (Shape II), all Kraak bowls have an everted rim which may at times also be upturned. (Shape IV). Footrings are thin, usually straight and high. Bases, with very few exceptions, are always glazed, often convex and with chatter marks. Unlike dishes and klapmutsen, Kraak bowls do not have the common denominator of border styles. Bowls have been categorized according to their often very distinctive shapes. There are six such shapes, each bearing one or more typical decorative motifs, which determine a subdivision.  

 

Shape I (c.1570-1610) with everted rim

  • Shape I.1 with deer motif (c.1575-1610)
  • Shape I.2 with flying horse motif (c.1585-1610)
  • Shape I.3 with crowcup features (c.1590-1610)
  • Shape I.4 with flower sprays (c.1585-1600)

 

Shape II (c.1580-1645) with straight rim

  • Shape II.1 with cakra motifs (c.1580-1645)
  • Shape II.2 with flying horse motifs (c.1575-1600)

Shape III (c.1575-1605) with lobed sides

 

Shape IV (c.1595-1645) crowcups

  • Shape IV.1 typical crowcups (c.1585-1645)
  • Shape IV.2 crowcups without panels (c.1595-1620)

Shape V (c.1620-1635) bell cups

 

Shape VI (c.1590-1650) large size bowls

  • Shape VI.1 early large bowls (c.1590-1630)
  • Shape VI.2 Hatcher cargo bowls (c.1635-1645)
  • Shape VI.3 bowls with Transitional features (c.1635-1650)

(source: Rinaldi 1989, pp.138-165)

2011608
2011608

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645 - Bowls - Page 1

 

Object 2011608

 

Bowl (crowcup)

 

China

 

1600-1625

 

Height 70 mm (2.76 inch), diameter of rim 142 mm (5.59 inch), diameter of footring 62 mm (2.44 inch), weight 146 grams (5.15 ounce (oz.))

 

Exhibited: The Asian Galleries Reinmagined - Color Across Asia held from 21 December 2016 to 13 May 2018 at the Ackland Art Museum, The University of North Carolina at Chaphil Hill, The United States of America, Object Guide no. 6.

 

Bowl or crowcup on footring, slightly outward moulded spreading wall with an everted upturned foliated rim. Decorated in underglaze blue with on the outside wide panels filled with; flowering jasmine tobacco (nicotiana alata), flowering chrysanthemum and a large butterfly, flowering peony and two with an insect in a marshy landscape alternating with narrow panels with knotted ribbons. On the inside in the centre a crow perched / standing on a rock with some grass-like foliage, on the sides wide panels filled with floral or fruit sprays alternating with narrow panels with beaded pendants.

 

According to Rinaldi this crowcup can be classified as a Shape IV.1 typical crowcup. The shape of these bowls is quite distinct from the traditional Chinese shape. They are tall and narrow, with almost straight walls, widening only slightly on the footrim. The height is almost always two-thirds of the diameter. These bowls are always moulded, the walls are always divided into large and narrow sections which follow the moulded decoration. (Rinaldi 1989, pp.153-156)

 

The main feature is the depiction in the centre of a bird resembling a crow or a magpie perched/standing on a rock. This basic design is often enhanced by a small circle above the bird representing the moon and at times, grass-like foliage. This ubiquitous crow motif gave this type of bowl its popular name of crowcup after the Dutch word 'kraaikop'. It is also mentioned that this type of cup was used for drinking 'kandeel', a drink made of eggs, milk, wine, sugar and cinnamon, served when a child was born. The word 'cameelscoppen' appears frequently on the Dutch East India Company's, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC), lists of porcelain.  (Pijl-Ketel 1982, pp.121-124 & Jörg 1990, pp.53-64)

 

For a similarly decorated crowcup, please see:

Condition: A hairline and some very tiny fleabites to the rim.

 

References:

Harrisson 1974. pp.18-19

Pijl-Ketel 1982, pp.119-120

Rinaldi 1989, Pl.187

Jörg 1990, pp.53-64

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2010650
2010650

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645 - Bowls - Page 1

 

Object 2010650

 

Bowl (crowcup)

 

China

 

1594-1645

 

Height 74 mm (2.91 inch), diameter of rim 125 mm (4.92 inch), diameter of footring 50 mm (1.97 inch)

 

Bowl or crowcup on footring, slightly outward moulded spreading wall with an everted upturned foliated rim. Decorated in underglaze blue with on the outside wide panels filled with auspicious symbols, ribbons and a tassel alternating with narrow panels with a stylized lingzhi. On the inside in the centre a crow perched / standing on a rock with some grass-like foliage, on the sides wide panels filled with peach or with a less common thorny branches motif alternate with narrow panels with beaded pendants.

 

According to Rinaldi this crowcup can be classified as a Shape IV.1 typical crowcup. The shape of these bowls is quite distinct from the traditional Chinese shape. They are tall and narrow, with almost straight walls, widening only slightly on the footrim. The height is almost always two-thirds of the diameter. These bowls are always moulded, the walls are always divided into large and narrow sections which follow the moulded decoration. (Rinaldi 1989, pp.153-156)

 

The main feature is the depiction in the centre of a bird resembling a crow or a magpie perched/standing on a rock. This basic design is often enhanced by a small circle above the bird representing the moon and at times, grass-like foliage. This ubiquitous motif gave this type of bowl its popular name of crowcup after the Dutch word 'kraaikop'. It is also mentioned that this type of cup was used for drinking 'kandeel', a drink made of eggs, milk, wine, sugar and cinnamon, served when a child was born. The word 'cameelscoppen' appears frequently on the the Dutch East India Company's, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC), lists of porcelain.  (Pijl-Ketel 1982, pp.121-124 & Jörg 1990, pp.53-64)

 

For a similarly decorated crowcup, please see:

Condition: A shallow glaze chip and some minor glaze frits and fleabites to the rim.

 

References:

Harrisson 1974. pp.18-19

Pijl-Ketel 1982, pp.121-124

Rinaldi 1989, Pl.181

Jörg 1990, pp.53-64

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2010723
2010723

Sold Ceramics - Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645 - Bowls - Page 1

 

Object 2010723

 

Bowl

 

China

 

1620-1640

 

Height 95 mm (3.74 inch), diameter of rim 215 mm (8.47 inch), diameter of footring 85 mm (3.35 inch)

 

Bowl on footring, straight rim with foliated edge. Decorated in underglaze blue with on the outside large panels filled with flowering plants and a butterfly in flight alternating with narrow panels with hanging ribbons. On the inside in the centre hanging tassels and ribbons and on the sides large panels filled with flowering branches alternating with narrow panels with hanging ribbons.

 

According to Rinaldi this bowl can be classified as a small Shape VI.2 bowl. These bowls, the largest in kraak wares are about 350 mm (13.78 inch) to 360 mm (14.17 inch) in diameter at the mouthrim. They have rounded walls ending in a straight rim. Walls do not have a moulded deign any more, but the decoration is organized in the typical kraak manner: large and narrow panels on the walls and around a centre medallion.

(Rinaldi 1989, pp.161-163)

 

This bowl is a small and rare version of a Shape VI.2 bowl.

 

For a similarly shaped, sized and decorated bowl, please see:

Condition: A hairline and some tiny frits to the rim.

 

References:

Volker 1954, reprint 1971, Pl. XXVI, cat. 45a & 45b

Pijl-Ketel 1982, p.80

Rinaldi 1989, pp.161-163

Jörg 1990, pp. 53-64

 

Price: Sold.

 

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Sold Ceramics - Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645 - Bowls - Page 1

 

Object 2012027

 

Bowl

 

China

 

1630-1645

 

Height 151 mm (5.95 inch), diameter of rim 337 mm (13.27 inch), diameter of footring 144 mm (5.67 inch), weight 2,657 grams (93.72 ounce (oz.))

 

2012027 2

 

2012027 13

 

 

Bowl on footring, straight rim with foliated edge. Kiln sand adhering to the inner footring. Decorated in underglaze blue with a riverscape with houses, trees and figures in a central medallion surrounded by a broad floral scroll border. Both in- and outside walls are divided in six large and six narrow panels. The large panels have a floral scroll border, three are filled with Chinese figures and river scenes with houses and trees, the other three are filled with Iznik-like flowers, the narrow panels are filled with tulips and flowers. Above the footring a broad floral scroll border.

 

According to Rinaldi this bowl can be classified as a Shape VI.3 bowl with Transitional features (c.1635-1650). The shape and body of these bowls comply with kraak characteristics, yet their decoration has adopted features typical of the Transitional style: it is much more elaborate and stylized and includes narrative scenes with figures as well as Dutch flowers, tulips and Iznik style flowers. The centre medallions offer a very wide selection of motifs, either typically Chinese or with European influence. The broad border around the centre medallion is decorated with a variety of motifs, like simple or floral scrolls, palmettes and semicircles. Both inside and outside walls are divided in large and narrow panels from three to six each. The large panels have a border with scrolls or vegetal motifs and are usually filled with extremely stylized and thinly-drawn flowers with Iznik influence or with European houses with Chinese figures. The narrow panels are filled with tulips and thinly-drawn flowers with Iznik influence. These bowls are an exact parallel with Border IX dishes and should be dated accordingly: 1635-1650. Curiously, while there are several Border IX dishes in the Topkapi Saray, there are no bowls with Transitional features. This would indicate that the production was mainly intended for the Dutch home market where most of these bowls are still to be found today. (Rinaldi 1989, pp.163-164)

 

Although the manufacture and the division into panels are still in kraak style, the decoration is Transitional, in particular the use of the 'tulip' motif. It has been suggested that the spinner and the houses were derived from European prints and drawings, but there is no evidence for this as yet. (Jörg 1984, pp.54-55, cat. 11 & Jörg 2011/1, pp.144-145, cat. 40)

 

For identically shaped, sized and decorated with the riverscape motif bowls, please see:

For another identically shaped and sized bowl, decorated with 'the Spinner'' motif,  please see:

For another identically shaped and sized bowl that on the outer wall is decorated with a continuous landscape scene with various figures in a typical Chinese style but on the inside is decorated with the same large and narrow panels filled with European houses with Chinese figures and tulips and thinly-drawn flowers with Iznik influence, please see:

Another extremely rare, unusually large Dutch (Delft) faience bowl closely follows a Chinese model in shape and size, but the panels are decorated with Chinoiseries composed of exotic Chinese decorative elements rendered in a personal, Western way by the painter in Delft, please see:

Condition: Some glaze rough spots to the rim, two hairlines and two re-stuck pieces to the wall.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1981, cat. 73

Jörg 1982/2, cat. 61

Jörg 1983, cat. 11

Jörg 1984, cat. 11

Rinaldi 1989, pp.163-164, Pl.203

Jörg 2011/1, cat. 40 & 41

 

Price: Sold.

 

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Sold Ceramics - Sold Kraak Porcelain wares 1570-1645 - Bowls - Page 1

 

Object 2011834

 

Bowl

 

China

 

1630-1645

 

Height 152 mm (5.98 inch), diameter of rim 340 mm (13.39 inch), diameter of footring 152 mm (5.98 inch), weight 2,198 grams (77.53 ounce (oz.))

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bowl on footring, straight rim with foliated edge. Kiln sand adhering to the base. Decorated in underglaze blue with 'the Spinner' motif in a central medallion surrounded by a broad floral scroll border. Both in- and outside walls are divided in six large and six narrow panels. The large panels have a floral scroll border and are filled with Chinese figures and river scenes with houses, the narrow panels are filled with tulips and flowers. Above the footring a broad floral scroll border.

 

According to Rinaldi this bowl can be classified as a Shape VI.3 bowl with Transitional features (c.1635-1650). The shape and body of these bowls comply with kraak characteristics, yet their decoration has adopted features typical of the Transitional style: it is much more elaborate and stylized and includes narrative scenes with figures as well as Dutch flowers, tulips and Iznik style flowers. The centre medallions offer a very wide selection of motifs, either typically Chinese or with European influence. The broad border around the centre medallion is decorated with a variety of motifs, like simple or floral scrolls, palmettes and semicircles. Both inside and outside walls are divided in large and narrow panels from three to six each. The large panels have a border with scrolls or vegetal motifs and are usually filled with extremely stylized and thinly-drawn flowers with Iznik influence or with European houses with Chinese figures. The narrow panels are filled with tulips and thinly-drawn flowers with Iznik influence. These bowls are an exact parallel with Border IX dishes and should be dated accordingly: 1635-1650. Curiously, while there are several Border IX dishes in the Topkapi Saray, there are no bowls with Transitional features. This would indicate that the production was mainly intended for the Dutch home market where most of these bowls are still to be found today. (Rinaldi 1989, pp.163-164)

 

Although the manufacture and the division into panels are still in kraak style, the decoration is Transitional, in particular the use of the 'tulip' motif. It has been suggested that the spinner and the houses were derived from European prints and drawings, but there is no evidence for this as yet. (Jörg 1984, pp.54-55, cat. 11 & Jörg 2011/1, pp.144-145, cat. 40)

 

The lady reeling, on the inside in the centre, may be Huang Tao P'o. She lived in the 14th century and is said to have invented the flocking-bow and loom and to have taught people the art of spinning and weaving. (Hartog 1990, p.48, cat. 21

 

For identically shaped, sized and decorated with 'the Spinner' motif bowls, please see:

Other identically with 'the Spinner' motif decorated bowls are in the collections of the Arnhem Gemeentemuseum (inv. no. V1-T) and the Groninger Museum (inv. nr. 1978-138), The Netherlands and in the Troesch Collection, Switzerland. (Rinaldi 1989, p.163, Pl.202)

 

For another identically shaped and sized bowl that on the outer wall is decorated with a continuous landscape scene with various figures in a typical Chinese style but on the inside is decorated with the same large and narrow panels filled with European houses with Chinese figures and tulips and thinly-drawn flowers with Iznik influence, please see:

Another extremely rare, unusually large Dutch (Delft) faience bowl closely follows a Chinese model in shape and size, but the panels are decorated with Chinoiseries composed of exotic Chinese decorative elements rendered in a personal, Western way by the painter in Delft, please see:

Condition: Some minor frits to the rim and a large hairline running from the rim to deep inside the base. A second shorter hairline with two old, silver wire, restorations. Two re-stuck pieces to the wall.

 

References:

Jörg 1982/2, cat. 122

Jörg 1983, cat. 11

Jörg 1984, cat. 11

Rinaldi 1989, pp.163-164, Pl.202

Hartog 1990, cat. 21

Jörg 2011/1, cat. 40 & 41

 

Price: Sold.

 

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