Pater Gratia Oriental Art

Chinese Porcelain

 

Chine de commande

 

Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800

 

Page 1

 

Chine de comande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 objects are, if available, categorized in the following alphabetical order:

  • Armorial
  • Pseudo-Armorial

 

Armorial

Armorial porcelain forms a special group within Chine de commande. Made especially for Eastern markets, this porcelain was decorated with the coats of arms of European families, cities or towns. The first armorial porcelain was produced for the Portuguese market around 1540. The Dutch started ordering armorial porcelain in 1700 when they replaced the Portuguese as the main porcelain traders in Asia in circa 1630. These objects were originally manufactured in the style of blue-and-white Kraak porcelain; when enamel colours were developed later, these were also applied. This porcelain could be ordered to specification in China. Tableware with a family coat of arms was a treasured possession that enhanced the status of the owner. (Source: Keramiek Museum Princessehof, Leeuwarden)

2011877
2011877

Chine de commande – Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2011877

 

Saucer

 

China

 

1745-1750

 

Provenance: Collection W. Angevaren, The Netherlands.

 

Height 28 mm (1.10 inch), diameter of rim 105 mm (4.13 inch), diameter of footring 60 mm (2.36 inch), weight 55 grams (1.94 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, straight rim. Decorated in encre de Chine (grisaille) and gold with a coat of arms: on a black background a white (silver) griffin with gold wings: the crest a similar griffin. The mantling of scrolling featherlike leaves is partly filled with hatched lines. The coat of arms is surrounded by scattered flower sprays. Round the rim a spearhead border. On the base a circular paper dealers label that reads: 'Collectie W. Angevaren L16' and the handwritten 'L16' in blue ink.

 

This is the coat of arms of the Van Riemsdijk family, a large and leading family in the Dutch East Indies in the 1700s. In total three services are known  bearing the Van Riemsdijk arms (Kroes 2007, cat. no. 165, 174 & 178) All of them were ordered by Jeremias van Riemsdijk (Utrecht 1712 - Batavia 1777). Two of them can be dated c. 1751. They were made on the occasion of the fourth marriage of Van Riemsdijk on May 2, 1751 to Adriana Louisa Helvetius (Batavia,1736-1772). Adriana was the daughter of Willem Vincent Helvetius (1705-1771) who also ordered an armorial service. Both services consist of dinner- and tea and coffee wares. The armorial design shows slight differences to the one on this saucer, particularly in the mantling. (Kroes 2007, p.188 cat. no. 103)

 

The earliest order was for a dinner service dated 1745-1750. It was ordered when Jeremias van Riemsdijk was second (1741) and first senior merchant (1742) and later captain of the clerks at the Castle of Batavia (1743-1747).Jeremias had a significant and influential social and family network, undoubtedly influenced by his no less than five wives of various influential families. His progression through Batavian society started in the 1750s with his appointment as extraordinary councillor of the Indies in 1754, ending as governor-general of the Dutch East Indies in 1775. It is interesting to note that he placed this order for armorial porcelain at a period of his life when he was not yet at the peak of his career. Of this dinner service only two pieces are recorded, a deep oval dish and a soup tureen. (Kroes 2007, p.262, cat 174)

 

There is a clear resemblance between the coat of arms on the saucer and the one on this early dinner service. It proofs that there was most likely a tea and coffee service which was ordered around or at the same time. This saucer, thus far unrecorded and only the third piece known with this particular Van Riemsdijk coat of arms, can therefore be considered quite rare. 

 

For the identically decorated deep oval dish, please see:

For a saucer from the tea service decorated with the Van Riemsdijk I armorial design, please see:

For a soup dish from a dinner service decorated with the Van Riemsdijk and Helvetius accollé armorial design, please see: 

Condition: a very short hairline to the rim. 

 

Reference:

Kroes 2007, cat. no. 103, 165, 174 & 178  

 

Price: € 1.499 - $ 1,684 - £ 1,354

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2010C275
2010C275

Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2010C275

 

Dish

 

China

 

1710-1730

 

Height 20 mm (0.79 inch), diameter of rim 223 mm (8.78 inch), diameter of footring 117 mm (4.60 inch), weight 303 grams (10.69 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkou). Chinese Imari, decorated in underglaze blue and overglaze iron-red and gold with a coat of arms. On the sides a flower border, round the rim flower sprays. On the reverse six single prunus blossoms in iron-red.

 

This coat of arms, a Chevron between three eagles and a bezant, in chief an unidentified charge; the crest is a heron-like bird with an eel (or snake) in its beak between two wings, was borne by the Van Gellicum family. It can be seen on a seal of 1921 which belonged to J.A. van Gellicum, who was a cavalry major. He descended from a family of probably wealthy farmers in the village of Deil in the Betuwe, Gelderland, The Netherlands. In this family either Jan Roelofs van Gellicum (1684-) or his son, Roelof van Gellicum (1708-), could have ordered this armorial porcelain. Jan Roelof married in 1707 and his son Roelof in 1749, the latter to Elisabeth Hoeken (1718-). In the 18th century three members of another branch of the Van Gellicum family (who are not related to the Deil family as far as is known) could have ordered these armorial dishes. The first two are the surgeon Chr. van Gellekom living in Amsterdam in 1742 and Hermanus van Gellicum, who also lived in Amsterdam about 1750-1760. The third is most interesting, Harmen van Gellecom, a native from Gorinchem The Netherlands, who was kwartiermeester (quarter-master or leading seaman), on four East Indiamen sailing on behalf of the the Dutch East India Company, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC), Chamber of Zeeland to Batavia between the years 1728 and 1736. The date of this porcelain correlates with his time in the Indies. This dish was part of a very large set of dishes, over 100 recorded examples (so far only dishes have been identified) Three sizes are known 380 mm (14.96 inch), 355 mm (13.98 inch) and 225 mm (8.86 inch). On the sides a floral scroll  border, the rim with rocks, flowers, leaves and zig-zag lines. The zig-zag lines represent a thunderbolt, seen on Delft faience of the first quarter of the 18th century and based on Japanese patterns. (Kroes 2007, pp.118-119)

  

On basis of 20th century lacquer seals these arms are usually attributed to the Van Gellicum family, but since nothing seems to be known about 18th century members, the identification is questionable. Dishes of this design are not rare and usually have a Dutch pedigree. There are other examples (unpublished) in the Drents Museum Assen, and the Keramiekmuseum Princessehof, Leeuwarden. (Jörg & Van Campen 1997, p.302)

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see:

 Condition: Three faint hairlines to the rim.

 

References:

Jörg & Van Campen 1997, cat. 353

Amsterdam 2006, lot 1095

Kroes 2007, cat.no. 20a & 20b

Sargent 2012, p.183

 

Price: € 599 - $ 673 - £ 523

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011546
2011546

Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Armorial - Page 1

 

Objects 2011546

 

Saucer

 

China

 

1790-1795

 

Height 33 mm (1.49 inch), diameter of rim 142 mm (5.51 inch), diameter of footring 85 mm (2.95 inch), weight 130 grams (4.59 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, straight rim. Decorated in various overglaze enamels, iron red, black and gold with a coat of arms, on the sides four flower sprays and on the rim a border with astrixes in gold on a blue enamel ground. The reverse is undecorated.

 

These coat of arms: on a white background a red bar charged with three white (silver) saltires, with three birds looking to the sinister, although with the birds looking at the opposite direction, were borne by two Dutch families, Verlouw and Froon. Both from Schiedam (the Netherlands). On the sides four groups of flowering branches and on the rim a blue border with stars in gold. Jan Verlouw (1749-1805) the eldest son of Daniël Verlou(w) (1724-1789?) and Maggeltie Helloe (Hellu) (1724-) seems most likely to have commissioned this armorial porcelain made in the early 1790s. Jan Verlouw was a councillor and alderman of the city of Schiedam. He married twice, first on 6 November 1771 Agata van Essen (1747-1784) and secondly, on 5 August 1788 Catharina van Holst (1753-1802. He outlived them both. His first wife gave birth to five children and his second wife had one daughter. Two daughters and two sons grew up to maturity. His eldest son Hendricus Verlouw (1774-1800) was a town physician of Schiedam. His youngest son, Daniël Verlouw (1779-1856) who married his older brothers widow became councillor and alderman of Schiedam. After the death of Daniël's youngest son, Jean Philippe (1809-1872), this branch became extinct in 1872. (Kroes 2007, pp.498-499)

 

Only a 13-piece tea service with this armorial design is known comprising of a rectangular tea caddy; a six-lobed teapot stand; a slop bowl; two coffee cups with moulded and s-shaped handle; two tea cups; five saucers (identical to the saucer offered) and one larger saucer. Additionally one tea bowl appeared on the English market in the early 21st century. 

 

For an identically decorated saucer, please see:

Condition: Three tiny frits, two small and shallow chips and a short hairline to the rim. 

 

Reference:

Kroes 2007, cat. no. 420

 

Price: € 499 - $ 560 - £ 435

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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Pseudo-Armorial

Pseudo-armorials are those emblems and signs which only resemble a coat of arm by using heraldic components such as a shield shape and/or banners, spears, flying angels etc. that surround the monogram or cipher. Chine de commande was expensive, made in limited amounts and was almost always ordered privately.

2012007
2012007

Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Pseudo-Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2012007

 

Saucer

 

China

 

1730-1750

 

Height 24 mm (0.95 inch), diameter of rim 133 mm (5.24 inch), diameter of footring 79 mm (3.11 inch), weight 72 grams (2.54 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, straight rim. Decorated in 'encre de Chine', gold, iro-red  and green and blue enamel with a central pseudo-Armorial monogram design within a wreath of leaves surmounted by a coronet, on the sides five groups of leafy scrolls. Round the rim a wave-pattern border. The reverse is undecorated.

 

Monograms and ciphers are mainly personal as opposed to coats of arms that beside by individuals can also be borne by whole families and communities. Pseudo-armorials are those emblems and signs which only resemble a coat of arm by using heraldic components such as a shield shape and/or banners, spears, flying angels etc. that surround the monogram or cipher. (Kroes 2007, p.56)

 

Condition: A popped bubble of glaze caused during the firing process and a fleabite to the rim, two Y-shaped hairlines to the base.

 

Reference:

Kroes 2007, p.56

 

Price: € 299 - $ 335 - £ 261

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011564
2011564

Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Pseudo-Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2011564

 

Teacup and saucer

 

China

 

1760-1770

 

Height of teacup 42 mm (1.65 inch), diameter of rim 76 mm (2.99 inch), diameter of footring 40 mm (1.58 inch), weight 52 grams (1.83 ounce (oz.))

Height of saucer 29 mm (1.14 inch), diameter of rim 120 mm (4.72 inch), diameter of footring 70 mm (2.76 inch), weight 91 grams (3.21 ounce (oz.))

 

Teacup and saucer on footrings, straight rims. Decorated in various famille rose enamels with gold. Both teacup and saucer with a monogrammed oval surmounted by a coronet surrounded by European scrollwork with hanging flowers. In the oval the cipher 'CMD'. On the sides four groups of flowering branches. It is, until now, unknown to who this cipher refers.

 

At a young age G.A.H. Buisman became the heir to the family firm. Like his father who built an extensive collection of Chine de commande porcelain, G.A.H. Buisman also developed an expert's eye for porcelain. According to his wishes his collection of Chinese and Japanese porcelain depicting Dutch family armorials were to be sold at auction. It was sold as, 'European Noble and Private Collections, Including the G A.H. Buisman Jzn. Chinese Armorial Porcelain Collection' by Christie's Amsterdam, sale 2691, on 14.15 & 16 February 2006. In this sale lot 1103, consisted of four identically decorated famille rose 'monogrammed' cups and saucers. please see: 

For more information on G.A.H. Buisman Jzn, please see:

Condition teacup: Perfect.

Condition saucer: Perfect.

  

Reference:

Amsterdam 2006, lot 1103

 

Price: € 499 - $ 560 - £ 435

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011822
2011822
Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Pseudo-Armorial - Page 1
 
Object 2011822

 

Dish

 

China

 

1770-1790

 

Height 28 mm (1.10 inch), diameter of rim 242 mm (9.53 inch), diameter of footring 136 mm (5.35 inch), weight 451 grams (15.91 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim with a scalloped edge. Polychrome decorated in various overglaze enamels and iron-red and gold. Initialled in the centre with flowering branches and a butterfly forming the initials 'W M J'  on the sides a framework of deutsche blumen (German flowers) joined by fonds of bamboo. On the rim six cartouches filled with deutsche blumen (German flowers) on a white enamelled bianco sopra bianco diaper pattern ground. The reverse is undecorated 

 

In the 18th century the Dutch, the British and, later on, the other European trading nations begin ordering armorial porcelains. Coats-of-arms were now ever increasingly decorated in overglaze colours in dedicated workshops stocked with wares to which a range of borders had been applied. These custom jobs cost many times more than the standard ware and were generally ordered by private traders who rented space on East India company ships. Company captains and officers were likewise inclined to garner a service with their own arms. Initialled porcelain was particularly popular in Scandinavia. (Emden 2015/1, p.108)

 

For a similarly decorated drinking service with the initials 'WB', please see:

Condition: Some wear to the decoration, a fleabite, two frits, two chips and a hairline to the rim.

 

Reference:

Emden 2015/1, p.108 & cat. 88

 

Price: € 299 - $ 335 - £ 261

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011010
2011010

Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Pseudo-Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2011010

 

Saucer

 

China

 

c.1790

 

Height 12 mm (0.47 inch), diameter of rim 82 mm (3.23 inch), diameter of footring 46 mm (1.81 inch), weight 111 grams (3.91 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, straight rim. Polychrome decorated in overglaze blue enamel, iron-red, black and gold with a spade-shaped shield filled with a gold floral branch; the crest two doves looking at each other. It is surrounded by curtain-like mantling with tassels and knotted ribbon in blue and gold enamels encircled by a concentric wavy dark blue enamel line. Around the rim a floral scroll pattern border.

 

The form of the shield and the mantling points to a date in or after the 1790's.The spaded shield was particularly popular in the English market. This saucer was most likely part of a pseudo-armorial coffee and tea service with the doves referring to love. Several varieties of these pseudo-armorial services were made. The floral branch as an heraldic emblem was borne by some Dutch families, however, it was probably ordered by someone who was not armigerous, perhaps for a wife as an expression of love. (Kroes 2007, p.491)

 

At the end of the eighteenth, begin of the nineteenth-century armorials tended to shrink to a crest alone, possibly in favour of more democratic sentiments. A generic crest, nuptial birds, became a favourite even for distinguished citizens such as Bishop William White (1748-1836) of Philadelphia. (Mudge 2000, p.66)

 

At this time the porcelain came in quantity from Jingdezhen via Nanking and thence by sea, and was enamelled with standardized shields. These shields were completed, to special European order, with initials or a crest (or in this case the generic crest of two nuptial birds) to special order as part of a commissioned coffee or tea services, in workshops of Canton. This could be added quickly so that orders could return on the ships that brought them. Supercargoes would fulfil commissions for tea services from private clients and European and American China shops. (Howard 1994, p.153 &  p.159)

 

For similarly decorated object, please see:

Condition: A firing flaw with two connected glaze hairlines both only visible on the base.

 

References:

Howard 1994, cat. 166 & 174

Mudge 2000, cat. 93

Kroes 2007, cat.no. 411

 

Price: € 249 - $ 279 - £ 217

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2012142
2012142

Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Pseudo-Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2012142

 

Saucer

 

China

 

c.1800

 

Height 28 mm (1.10 inch), diameter of rim 128 mm (5.04 inch), diameter of footring 75 mm (2.95 inch), weight 81 grams (2.86 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, straight rim. Decorated in various overglaze enamels and gold with the crest and moto of Robertson, A dexterhand erect holding in the hand an imperial crown all proper, with the motto 'Virtutis Gloria merces' (Glory is the reward of valour). Beneath the shield, on which are the initials C.R., the figure of a wild man in chains proper. Round the rim an ornamental border. The reverse is undecorated.   

 

This service is one of a number made for the family of Robertson of Struan (which family bore on a compartment beneath their arms a wild man in chains commemorating the capture of the murderer of King James I of Scotland in 1437 by the 4th Chief of the Clan. Four earlier services are illustrated in this volume (F4, V8, V14 and V17) which give detail of the family in the second half of the 18th Century, but although there is more than one Charles Robertson in earlier generations, and younger sons are mentioned in published records, there is no obvious owner of this service. The border design is, however, exactly as the Hon. East India Company service (Volume I, W12) which was delivered to the Governors of all the principal East India Stations in India at this time, and it would seem quite possible that the service was carried by Captain Thomas Robertson who commanded East Indiamen at Canton in 1797, 1800 and 1802 (although his crest is not recorded. (Howard 2003, p.656)

 

For a small cup/mug from the same service, please see:

The Robertsons claim to be descended from Crinan, Lord of Atholl, from whom sprang the royal house of Duncan I, the King of the Scots. The Robertson clan is more properly called ‘Clan Donnachaidh’ from their ancestor Duncan, who was a staunch supporter of Robert the Bruce, and who led the Clan at the Battle of Bannockburn.

The general surname of the clan Robertson was taken from Robert Riach (Grizzled Robert) the clan chief, who was known for his intense loyalty to the Stewarts. Riach was responsible for capturing the murderers of King James I, and was rewarded by the crown for this act by having his lands at Struan erected into a Barony.

 

Robert Riach

 

Robert Riach (source: www.scotclans.com)

 

The clan was also granted a symbolic memorial by additions to their coat of arms – subsequently the chief of clan Robertson bore as his crest a hand holding an imperial royal crown, and underneath a man in chains, representing the regicide. About a century later, the Robertson family lost the lands of Struan to the Earl of Atholl but the family regained them in 1606.

However in the seventeenth century, after the final defeat of James VII, all Robertson estates were forfeited and the chief of the Robertson clan joined the exiled court in France. To this day the chiefs of the clan Robertson still have the right and privilege of interment in the family burial ground at Struan. (source: www.scotclans.com)

 

For more information on the Clan Robertson (Clan Donnachaidh), please click here.

 

Condition: Three hairlines to the rim.

 

References:

Howard 2003, W12 Robertson

www.scotclans.com

www.donnachaidh.com

 

Price: € 499 - $ 617 - £ 435

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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