Pater Gratia Oriental Art

Chinese Porcelain

 

Chine de commande

 

Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800

 

Page 1

 

Chine de comande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 objects are, if available, categorized in the following alphabetical order:

  • Armorial
  • Pseudo-Armorial

 

Armorial

Armorial porcelain forms a special group within Chine de commande. Made especially for Eastern markets, this porcelain was decorated with the coats of arms of European families, cities or towns. The first armorial porcelain was produced for the Portuguese market around 1540. The Dutch started ordering armorial porcelain in 1700 when they replaced the Portuguese as the main porcelain traders in Asia in circa 1630. These objects were originally manufactured in the style of blue-and-white Kraak porcelain; when enamel colours were developed later, these were also applied. This porcelain could be ordered to specification in China. Tableware with a family coat of arms was a treasured possession that enhanced the status of the owner. (Source: Keramiek Museum Princessehof, Leeuwarden)

2012191
2012191

Chine de commande – Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2012191

 

Teacup and saucer

 

China

 

c.1735-38

 

Height of teacup 29 mm (1.14 inch), diameter of rim 56 mm (2.20 inch), diameter of footring 25 mm (0.98 inch), weight 21 grams (0.74 ounce (oz.))

Height of saucer 18 mm (0.70 inch), diameter of rim 88 mm (3.46 inch), diameter of footring 50 mm (1.97 inch), weight 23 grams (0.81 ounce (oz.))

 

Teacup and saucer on footrings, sixfold scalloped rims. Decorated in various overglaze black, gold, blue and green enamels, iron-red and gold with a coat of arms round the rim a lozenge diaper border in gold on a rouge de fer ground with a flowerbud-like or early spearhead border. On the reverse rim three groups of flower sprays with antiquities and round the rim a regular spearhead motif border. The teacup is decorated en suite.

 

The coat of arms shows: 

Sable, on a chevron d’or three azure fleur-de-lys, above with two severed lion’s heads with red tongues facing each other and below a lion’s head facing forward with a ring in its mouth, all in gold. Two leopards as shield bearers, holding a crown. (in Dutch: in zwart een lage keper beladen met drie blauwe lelies, boven vergezeld van twee toegewende afgerukte leeuwenkoppen, rood getongd en beneden van een aanziende leeuwenkop, rood getongd, alles goud)

 

The Dutch coat of arms on this teacup and saucer are unidentified and unrecorded in literature (including J. Kroes’ Dutch armorial porcelain) until now. They belong to the ‘De la Faille’ family (also written: del la/della Faille).  

 

FailledellatekeningvdSteur 

 

Coat of arms de la /del la/della Faille family, drawing, HxW…inch,138 mm (4.43 inch) x 126 mm (4.96 inch) © Antiquariaat /antiquarian bookshop Van der Steur, Haarlem, the Netherlands.

 

The De la Faille family has its origin in Antwerp and already traded on the Levant in 1540, with some of its family members taking up residence in Venice. The family can still be found in Belgium today (until 1831 the southern part of the Netherlands) and belongs to the Belgian nobility.  

The family split when after the fall of the city of Antwerp in 1585 some Protestant members emigrated to the Netherlands, more precise to Haarlem, Dordrecht and Leiden. In the late 17th century the family also took residence in the city of Delft. 

Because of their prominence in Delft and Delft being one of the VOC Chambers, further research was done on these members of the De la Faille family. 

 

The Delft connection starts with Bernardus de la Faille, who resided in The Hague (Dutch: Den Haag) nearby Delft; he was an accountant for the Stadtholder Maurice of Orange. He married Elisabeth Camerling from Delft in 1618.

 

His son, Johan del la Faille (1628-1713) already became a member of the City Council (Dutch: vroedschap) in Delft. As a supporter of stadtholder William III of Orange, he was appointed in 1672, the Year of Disaster after the First Stadtholderless Period, when the Dutch Republic was under threat of an invasion by the troops of King Louis XIV of France. He was also bailiff (Dutch: Schout) in Delft between 1680 and 1713. Johan de la Faille owned a famous curiosity cabinet, which was started by his grandfather and father, mainly consisting of sea shells as well as birds, Roman coins and medals, tapestries and paintings and interestingly also porcelains.

 

FailleJohanportret

 

Portrait of Johan de la Faille(1628-1713), 1680s, member of the City Council (vroedschap) and Bailiff (schout) of Delft, Oil on copper, H x W 6 1/4 x 12 inch (41.3 x 30.5 cm),Jan Verkolje, signed on the butt of the rifle: Jan Verkolye 168(?)

© 2018 Wadsworth Athenaeum Museum of Art, Hartford Connecticut, US, object-id: 1982.36

  

Johan de la Faille married on 28th of January 1671 with Anna Margaretha Delff (1647–1715). The couple had four children: Johan Bernard, Cornelis, Abraham and Elisabeth.

 

His second son Cornelis (1674-1730) was the centre of an interesting story. In 1730 he became involved in the so-called ‘Sodomite Hysteria’ (Dutch: Sodomietenhysterie) in the Netherlands. Cornelis was homosexual, but in the elite circles of the time this was usually handled reasonably open-minded.

In 1730 however the Dutch Republic had just experienced an epizootic disease in its cattle population, while its dikes were threatened by shipworm. These circumstances had readied the minds of the Dutch for moral panics fuelled by Protestant preachers, because they saw this as evidence of God's wrath against homosexuals. This dangerous mind-set and an already present aversion against the clique of city rulers was pretty suddenly canalized in a violent outbreak of hate against homosexuals, which started in the city of Utrecht, after which a nationwide wave of prosecutions ensued. In a series of pamphlets and veil gossip a whole network of homosexual members of city councils across several Dutch cities, including the locations of the public houses they met, was outed and vilified. The government, pressured by the public outrage, now felt compelled to act.

Dozens of men were condemned to the gallows or drowned, and their remains were burned or casted into the sea, which attests to the dangerous atmosphere at the time. 

 

Sodomietenvervolging

 

Engraving, 180 mm (7.09 inch) x 280 mm (11.02 inch), 1730; Allegory, showing Justice in the centre, ‘glorified by the discovery of …severe Sin.’ [Dutch: ‘De geregtigheid verheerlijkt door het ontdekken der hooggaande zonde’].To the left an angel holding a banner showing the Biblical text ‘Men desisting from natural relations with women,’ Romans 1:27 [Dutch: ‘Mannen nalatende het gebruik der vrouwen’, Romeinen 1:27]. Time lifts the curtain to reveal homosexual gentlemen; the four chained women to their right represent Fornication, Lust, Avarice and Wantonness. On the background the cities of Sodom and Gomorra burning. 

© National Prison Museum, Veenhuizen, the Netherlands, inv. nr. 05417645X

 

In Delft three ‘suspects’ were arrested. Fortunately, prime suspect Cornelis de la Faille had fled town just in time. He was convicted in absentia and all his possessions, including a large townhouse (Oude Delft 124), inherited from his mother, were confiscated.  

Cornelis died in 1730 of natural causes; the family de la Faille however did not accept Cornelis’ conviction and started a trial at the High Court of Holland to regain their family possessions. When the homophobia finally died down the family won the court proceedings arguing that it was  first and foremost a family affair in which the courts had no say at all, an argument which the court, consisting of fellow city elite members, was highly sensitive of. 

 

Cornelis died in 1730 and his brothers Johan Bernard and Abraham both in 1729, which makes it unlikely any of them ordered this tea-and coffee set with their coat of arms, because this cup and saucer can actually be dated quite precisely due to the interesting fact that - apart from the coat of arms - it is identical  to cups and saucers from the well-known Valckenier armorial tea- and coffee service, ordered by governor-general Adriaan Valckenier, dated 1735-38.

 

The back and sides of a Valckenier teacup and saucer, which further confirms that it is completely identical with de la Faille, are never shown, therefore an few rare pictures are also included in this description.

It is because of these never visible verte enamels in this part of the decoration, this Valckenier tea- and coffee service has sometimes been described in the past as ‘famille verte’ [Corbeiller 1974, p.88].

 

Kop_en_schotel_2Kopje_gelobd_zijkant1 Schoteltje_achter

 

Teacup and saucer with the arms of Valckenier, c. 1735-38, cup H.3,7 cm (inch),D. 6,7 cm(inch), saucer 10,7 cm (inch), Private Collection, the Netherlands. (not included in this sale)

 

For more background information about this Valckenier tea-and coffee set, please see:

For more information about other Valckenier armorial services in general, please see:

The similarity with Valckenier of course begs the question whether there could be any connection between the two families. Further research revealed no family connection (e.g. through marriage). However, it became clear that at the same time Adriaan Valckenier was in Batavia, there were also at least two members of the De la Faille family present as part of the government of the Dutch Indies, working directly with him.

 

In 1701 Cornelis’ elder brother Johan Bernard (1672-1729) married with Anna Catharina van Heemskerck (1676-1723); the couple had no less than 8 children. One of Johan Bernard’s children was Bernard Jacob de la Faille (1709-1746), who went to Batavia in 1731 aboard the VOC ship ‘Spiering’ as a member of the Council of Justice (Dutch: Raad van Justitie) in Batavia [source: openarch.nl] He married Marie Gosewine in 1732. 

 

Another was Mr. Cornelis Coenraad de la Faille (1710-1744), merchant and First Keeper of the Storage Rooms (Dutch: koopman en dispensier Provisiekamer) in Batavia in 1736. Presumably around that same time he married Magdalena Clara van Schagen, the daughter of Joan Paul van Schagen (1689-1746), who became director-general of the Indies in 1737, at the same time Adriaan Valckenier became governor-general. The couple had two daughters. 

[source: Wijnaendts van Resandt, W., De gezaghebbers der Oost-Indische Compagnie op hare buiten-comptoiren in Azië, Amsterdam 1944, pp. 68-69] 

 

Both De la Faille brothers could have ordered armorial porcelain because of their significant VOC functions in Batavia. The most likely of the two in this case however would be Cornelis Coenraad, because of his stronger connection to Adriaan Valckenier through his spouse whose father worked directly alongside Valckenier. Another indication could be the oval shape of the shield, which usually (although not exclusively) points to a married woman. Perhaps he ordered this armorial tea service when he married Magadalena van Schagen? 

 

All in all, this hereto unknown Dutch armorial cup and saucer provides a fascinating view not only into the De la Faille family history, but also into Dutch and Batavian history and the high society of the time.

 

Condition teacup: some frits and fleabites to the rim

Condition saucer: a short hairline to the rim. 

 

References:

Bos, G., Naamboekje van de wel. ed. heeren der Hooge Indische Regeeringe, gequalificeerde persoonen, enz. en bedienden op Batavia: mitsgaders de respective gouverneurs, directeurs, commandeurs en opperhoofden op de buiten comptoiren van Nederl. India, zoo als dezelve in wezen zyn bevonden in January ... : als meede alle de Gouverneurs Generaal zedert het jaar 1610 : nevens de hooge en mindere collegien en bedienden op Suriname, Volume 10, Amsterdam 1739, p. 15:

Ferwerda, A., Nederlandsch geslacht-stam-en wapen-boek,: waarin voorkomen de voornaamste adelyke en aanzienlyke familiën in de zeven vereenigde provinciën; opgemaakt uit oude en echte gedenkstukken, Amsterdam 1785, vol. 1, pp.37-46:

De Nederlandsche Leeuw, jaargang 15 (1897), p. 191

Corbeiller 1974, pp. 86-88, no. 34, figs. 46-47

Kroes 2007, cat. 32 t/m 36, cat. 78,cat. 96 t/m 101

Wijnaendts van Resandt 1944, pp. 68-69

 

Price: € 1.499 - $ 1.691 - £ 1.346

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011877
2011877

Chine de commande – Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2011877

 

Saucer

 

China

 

1745-1750

 

Provenance: Collection W. Angevaren, The Netherlands.

 

Height 28 mm (1.10 inch), diameter of rim 105 mm (4.13 inch), diameter of footring 60 mm (2.36 inch), weight 55 grams (1.94 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, straight rim. Decorated in encre de Chine (grisaille) and gold with a coat of arms: on a black background a white (silver) griffin with gold wings: the crest a similar griffin. The mantling of scrolling featherlike leaves is partly filled with hatched lines. The coat of arms is surrounded by scattered flower sprays. Round the rim a spearhead border. On the base a circular paper dealers label that reads: 'Collectie W. Angevaren L16' and the handwritten 'L16' in blue ink.

 

This is the coat of arms of the Van Riemsdijk family, a large and leading family in the Dutch East Indies in the 1700s. In total three services are known  bearing the Van Riemsdijk arms (Kroes 2007, cat. no. 165, 174 & 178) All of them were ordered by Jeremias van Riemsdijk (Utrecht 1712 - Batavia 1777). Two of them can be dated c. 1751. They were made on the occasion of the fourth marriage of Van Riemsdijk on May 2, 1751 to Adriana Louisa Helvetius (Batavia,1736-1772). Adriana was the daughter of Willem Vincent Helvetius (1705-1771) who also ordered an armorial service. Both services consist of dinner- and tea and coffee wares. The armorial design shows slight differences to the one on this saucer, particularly in the mantling. (Kroes 2007, p.188 cat. no. 103)

 

The earliest order was for a dinner service dated 1745-1750. It was ordered when Jeremias van Riemsdijk was second (1741) and first senior merchant (1742) and later captain of the clerks at the Castle of Batavia (1743-1747).Jeremias had a significant and influential social and family network, undoubtedly influenced by his no less than five wives of various influential families. His progression through Batavian society started in the 1750s with his appointment as extraordinary councillor of the Indies in 1754, ending as governor-general of the Dutch East Indies in 1775. It is interesting to note that he placed this order for armorial porcelain at a period of his life when he was not yet at the peak of his career. Of this dinner service only two pieces are recorded, a deep oval dish and a soup tureen. (Kroes 2007, p.262, cat 174)

 

There is a clear resemblance between the coat of arms on the saucer and the one on this early dinner service. It proofs that there was most likely a tea and coffee service which was ordered around or at the same time. This saucer, thus far unrecorded and only the third piece known with this particular Van Riemsdijk coat of arms, can therefore be considered quite rare. 

 

For the identically decorated deep oval dish, please see:

For a saucer from the tea service decorated with the Van Riemsdijk I armorial design, please see:

For a soup dish from a dinner service decorated with the Van Riemsdijk and Helvetius accollé armorial design, please see: 

Condition: a very short hairline to the rim. 

 

Reference:

Kroes 2007, cat. no. 103, 165, 174 & 178  

 

Price: € 1.499 - $ 1,684 - £ 1,354

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2010C275
2010C275

Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2010C275

 

Dish

 

China

 

1710-1730

 

Height 20 mm (0.79 inch), diameter of rim 223 mm (8.78 inch), diameter of footring 117 mm (4.60 inch), weight 303 grams (10.69 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat underglaze brown-edged rim (jia mangkou). Chinese Imari, decorated in underglaze blue and overglaze iron-red and gold with a coat of arms. On the sides a flower border, round the rim flower sprays. On the reverse six single prunus blossoms in iron-red.

 

This coat of arms, a Chevron between three eagles and a bezant, in chief an unidentified charge; the crest is a heron-like bird with an eel (or snake) in its beak between two wings, was borne by the Van Gellicum family. It can be seen on a seal of 1921 which belonged to J.A. van Gellicum, who was a cavalry major. He descended from a family of probably wealthy farmers in the village of Deil in the Betuwe, Gelderland, The Netherlands. In this family either Jan Roelofs van Gellicum (1684-) or his son, Roelof van Gellicum (1708-), could have ordered this armorial porcelain. Jan Roelof married in 1707 and his son Roelof in 1749, the latter to Elisabeth Hoeken (1718-). In the 18th century three members of another branch of the Van Gellicum family (who are not related to the Deil family as far as is known) could have ordered these armorial dishes. The first two are the surgeon Chr. van Gellekom living in Amsterdam in 1742 and Hermanus van Gellicum, who also lived in Amsterdam about 1750-1760. The third is most interesting, Harmen van Gellecom, a native from Gorinchem The Netherlands, who was kwartiermeester (quarter-master or leading seaman), on four East Indiamen sailing on behalf of the the Dutch East India Company, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC), Chamber of Zeeland to Batavia between the years 1728 and 1736. The date of this porcelain correlates with his time in the Indies. This dish was part of a very large set of dishes, over 100 recorded examples (so far only dishes have been identified) Three sizes are known 380 mm (14.96 inch), 355 mm (13.98 inch) and 225 mm (8.86 inch). On the sides a floral scroll  border, the rim with rocks, flowers, leaves and zig-zag lines. The zig-zag lines represent a thunderbolt, seen on Delft faience of the first quarter of the 18th century and based on Japanese patterns. (Kroes 2007, pp.118-119)

  

On basis of 20th century lacquer seals these arms are usually attributed to the Van Gellicum family, but since nothing seems to be known about 18th century members, the identification is questionable. Dishes of this design are not rare and usually have a Dutch pedigree. There are other examples (unpublished) in the Drents Museum Assen, and the Keramiekmuseum Princessehof, Leeuwarden. (Jörg & Van Campen 1997, p.302)

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see:

 Condition: Three faint hairlines to the rim.

 

References:

Jörg & Van Campen 1997, cat. 353

Amsterdam 2006, lot 1095

Kroes 2007, cat.no. 20a & 20b

Sargent 2012, p.183

Suchomel 2015, cat. 196

 

Price: € 599 - $ 673 - £ 523

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2012224
2012224

Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2012224

 

Cup

China

c.1720

 

Height 62 mm (2.44 inch), diameter of rim 57 mm (2.24 inch), diameter of footring 26 mm (1.02 inch), weight 90 grams (3.17 ounce (oz.))

 

Cup with handle on footring. Decorated in iron-red, blue, purple and (unusual) lime green enamels and gold with the arms and crest of Sir John Lambert, Bt., the reverse with a basket with ribbons and tassels filled with finger-lemon fruit also called 'Buddha's-hand citron (Citrus medica), divided by a flywhisk and ruyi sceptre (Daoist symbols) amongst flowers prays. Round the foot and inner rim a spiked palings border and on the outer rim a foliage border. On the base an old rectangular paper label.

 

The arms are those of Sir John Lambert, created a baronet in 1711. One of the twenty-eight directors of the South Sea Company, founded the same year, Lambert became wealthy by his unscrupulous handling of the company's affairs. He was involved in the selling of fictitious stock, bribing royal mistresses with shares at favourable rates, and juggling the books. His name also occurs in Dutch accounts as agent for speculators in Amsterdam. Lambert tried to cash in on the bubble mania by proposing a company of his own, a whale fishery in Greenland but this was in July 1720: the South Sea Bubble was about to burst, and his petition was refused. The directors were held responsible for the collapse, and after a public inquiry their estates were confiscated. Of this newly acquired wealth valued at 72,508 GPB, Lambert lost all but 5,000 GBP. He died in February 1723. (Corbeiller 1974, p.46)

 

The service to which the octagonal dish in China Trade Porcelain: Patterns of Exchange, (C. le Corbeiller, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 1974), pp.46-47, cat. 20 belongs is typical of the armorial wares made for the English and French markets between about 1720 and 1730. The decoration at this comparatively early stage of the porcelain trade was still essentially Oriental, the European armorials in no way interfering with the traditional K'ang Hsi arrangement of borders and symbols. The Lambert service, which must date before 1723 and was probably ordered at the height of Sir John's financial success or about 1720, appears to be the earliest of this type. All comparable and datable services fall within the ensuing decade. Although the decorative style of export porcelains showed little Western influence at this period, the shapes of individual pieces were generally copied from contemporary examples in silver; the moulding on the rim of the octagonal dish (cat.20) offers further confirmation of this point, as does the inclusion in the Lambert service of a tazza, one of the few known to exist in China trade porcelain. (Corbeiller 1974, p.46)

  

This cup proves, that besides the Lambert armorial service, Sir John Lambert, Bt. must also have ordered an armorial tea / coffee service, no other object from this tea / coffee service seems to be recorded at this time.

 

For other objects decorated arms, crest and motto of Sir John Lambert, Bt., please see:

Condition: Perfect.

 

References:

Corbeiller 1974, cat. 20

Howard 1974, p.206, no. D2

London 1988, cat. 82 & 87

New York 2000, lot 279

Howard 2003, p.141, D2

 

Price: € 599 - $ 670 - £ 523

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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Pseudo-Armorial

Pseudo-armorials are those emblems and signs which only resemble a coat of arm by using heraldic components such as a shield shape and/or banners, spears, flying angels etc. that surround the monogram or cipher. Chine de commande was expensive, made in limited amounts and was almost always ordered privately.

2012187
2012187

Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Pseudo-Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2012187

 

Teacup and saucer

 

China

 

1765-1775

 

Provenance: Van der Ven & Van der Ven Antiquairs, 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands.

 

Height of teacup 39 mm (1.54 inch), diameter of rim 65 mm (2.56 inch), diameter of footring 31 mm (1.22 inch), weight 37 grams (1.31 ounce (oz.))

Height of saucer 26 mm (1.02 inch), diameter of rim 106 mm (4.17 inch), diameter of footring 61 mm (2.40 inch), weight 62 grams (2.19 ounce (oz.))

 

Teacup and saucer on footrings, straight rims. Polychrome decorated in iron-red, black and green overglaze enamels and gold. In the centre there are two monogrammed ovals linked above by a knotted ribbon with a tassel, surrounded by palms and garlands. In the dexter oval, gilt letters are painted in handwriting with the initials 'PR', the sinister oval has the initial's 'CVE'. Below the ovals, in the middle, an animal's head. On the sides four groups of flowering branches. Round the rim a border with leafy branches and flower heads. The reverse is undecorated. The teacup is decorated en suite. On the base of the saucer a rectangular silver paper dealers label with the printed text: 'VAN DER VEN & VAN DER VEN ANTIQUAIRS 'S-Hertogenbosch CHINEES PORSELEIN CH'IEN LUNG PERIODE 1736 - 1795'. 

 

Much Chinese export porcelain made for the Dutch market has a pseudo-armorial character, the most notable and largest group being monogrammed porcelain. Monograms are initials, often finely painted in the shape of a mirror monogram or cipher. A mirror monogram is a design of a monogram where the letters are reversed to make mirror images to produce an ornamental form. The word cipher is more or less synonymous with mirror monogram the with the emphasis on encrypting text with a combination of symbolic letters in an entwined weaving of letters.

Monograms and ciphers are mainly personal as opposed to coats of arms that beside by individuals can also be borne by whole families and communities. Pseudo-armorials are those emblems and signs which only resemble a coat of arm by using heraldic components such as a shield shape and/or banners, spears, flying angels etc. that surround the monogram or cipher. (Kroes 2007, p.56)

  

Condition teacup: A hairline to the rim.

Condition saucer: Perfect.

 

Reference:

Kroes 2007, p.56

  

Price: € 299 - $ 352 - £ 266

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2012007
2012007

Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Pseudo-Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2012007

 

Saucer

 

China

 

1730-1750

 

Height 24 mm (0.95 inch), diameter of rim 133 mm (5.24 inch), diameter of footring 79 mm (3.11 inch), weight 72 grams (2.54 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, straight rim. Decorated in 'encre de Chine', gold, iro-red  and green and blue enamel with a central pseudo-Armorial monogram design within a wreath of leaves surmounted by a coronet, on the sides five groups of leafy scrolls. Round the rim a wave-pattern border. The reverse is undecorated.

 

Monograms and ciphers are mainly personal as opposed to coats of arms that beside by individuals can also be borne by whole families and communities. Pseudo-armorials are those emblems and signs which only resemble a coat of arm by using heraldic components such as a shield shape and/or banners, spears, flying angels etc. that surround the monogram or cipher. (Kroes 2007, p.56)

 

Condition: A popped bubble of glaze caused during the firing process and a fleabite to the rim, two Y-shaped hairlines to the base.

 

Reference:

Kroes 2007, p.56

 

Price: € 299 - $ 335 - £ 261

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011564
2011564

Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Pseudo-Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2011564

 

Teacup and saucer

 

China

 

1760-1770

 

Height of teacup 42 mm (1.65 inch), diameter of rim 76 mm (2.99 inch), diameter of footring 40 mm (1.58 inch), weight 52 grams (1.83 ounce (oz.))

Height of saucer 29 mm (1.14 inch), diameter of rim 120 mm (4.72 inch), diameter of footring 70 mm (2.76 inch), weight 91 grams (3.21 ounce (oz.))

 

Teacup and saucer on footrings, straight rims. Decorated in various famille rose enamels with gold. Both teacup and saucer with a monogrammed oval surmounted by a coronet surrounded by European scrollwork with hanging flowers. In the oval the cipher 'CMD'. On the sides four groups of flowering branches. It is, until now, unknown to who this cipher refers.

 

At a young age G.A.H. Buisman became the heir to the family firm. Like his father who built an extensive collection of Chine de commande porcelain, G.A.H. Buisman also developed an expert's eye for porcelain. According to his wishes his collection of Chinese and Japanese porcelain depicting Dutch family armorials were to be sold at auction. It was sold as, 'European Noble and Private Collections, Including the G A.H. Buisman Jzn. Chinese Armorial Porcelain Collection' by Christie's Amsterdam, sale 2691, on 14.15 & 16 February 2006. In this sale lot 1103, consisted of four identically decorated famille rose 'monogrammed' cups and saucers. please see: 

For more information on G.A.H. Buisman Jzn, please see:

Condition teacup: Perfect.

Condition saucer: Perfect.

  

Reference:

Amsterdam 2006, lot 1103

 

Price: € 499 - $ 560 - £ 435

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011822
2011822
Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Pseudo-Armorial - Page 1
 
Object 2011822

 

Dish

 

China

 

1770-1790

 

Height 28 mm (1.10 inch), diameter of rim 242 mm (9.53 inch), diameter of footring 136 mm (5.35 inch), weight 451 grams (15.91 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim with a scalloped edge. Polychrome decorated in various overglaze enamels and iron-red and gold. Initialled in the centre with flowering branches and a butterfly forming the initials 'W M J'  on the sides a framework of deutsche blumen (German flowers) joined by fonds of bamboo. On the rim six cartouches filled with deutsche blumen (German flowers) on a white enamelled bianco sopra bianco diaper pattern ground. The reverse is undecorated 

 

In the 18th century the Dutch, the British and, later on, the other European trading nations begin ordering armorial porcelains. Coats-of-arms were now ever increasingly decorated in overglaze colours in dedicated workshops stocked with wares to which a range of borders had been applied. These custom jobs cost many times more than the standard ware and were generally ordered by private traders who rented space on East India company ships. Company captains and officers were likewise inclined to garner a service with their own arms. Initialled porcelain was particularly popular in Scandinavia. (Emden 2015/1, p.108)

 

For a similarly decorated drinking service with the initials 'WB', please see:

Condition: Some wear to the decoration, a fleabite, two frits, two chips and a hairline to the rim.

 

Reference:

Emden 2015/1, p.108 & cat. 88

 

Price: € 299 - $ 335 - £ 261

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011010
2011010

Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Pseudo-Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2011010

 

Saucer

 

China

 

c.1790

 

Height 12 mm (0.47 inch), diameter of rim 82 mm (3.23 inch), diameter of footring 46 mm (1.81 inch), weight 111 grams (3.91 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, straight rim. Polychrome decorated in overglaze blue enamel, iron-red, black and gold with a spade-shaped shield filled with a gold floral branch; the crest two doves looking at each other. It is surrounded by curtain-like mantling with tassels and knotted ribbon in blue and gold enamels encircled by a concentric wavy dark blue enamel line. Around the rim a floral scroll pattern border.

 

The form of the shield and the mantling points to a date in or after the 1790's.The spaded shield was particularly popular in the English market. This saucer was most likely part of a pseudo-armorial coffee and tea service with the doves referring to love. Several varieties of these pseudo-armorial services were made. The floral branch as an heraldic emblem was borne by some Dutch families, however, it was probably ordered by someone who was not armigerous, perhaps for a wife as an expression of love. (Kroes 2007, p.491)

 

At the end of the eighteenth, begin of the nineteenth-century armorials tended to shrink to a crest alone, possibly in favour of more democratic sentiments. A generic crest, nuptial birds, became a favourite even for distinguished citizens such as Bishop William White (1748-1836) of Philadelphia. (Mudge 2000, p.66)

 

At this time the porcelain came in quantity from Jingdezhen via Nanking and thence by sea, and was enamelled with standardized shields. These shields were completed, to special European order, with initials or a crest (or in this case the generic crest of two nuptial birds) to special order as part of a commissioned coffee or tea services, in workshops of Canton. This could be added quickly so that orders could return on the ships that brought them. Supercargoes would fulfil commissions for tea services from private clients and European and American China shops. (Howard 1994, p.153 &  p.159)

 

For similarly decorated object, please see:

Condition: A firing flaw with two connected glaze hairlines both only visible on the base.

 

References:

Howard 1994, cat. 166 & 174

Mudge 2000, cat. 93

Kroes 2007, cat.no. 411

 

Price: € 249 - $ 279 - £ 217

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2012142
2012142

Chine de commande - Armorial / Pseudo-Armorial wares 1700-1800 - Pseudo-Armorial - Page 1

 

Object 2012142

 

Saucer

 

China

 

c.1800

 

Height 28 mm (1.10 inch), diameter of rim 128 mm (5.04 inch), diameter of footring 75 mm (2.95 inch), weight 81 grams (2.86 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, straight rim. Decorated in various overglaze enamels and gold with the crest and moto of Robertson, A dexterhand erect holding in the hand an imperial crown all proper, with the motto 'Virtutis Gloria merces' (Glory is the reward of valour). Beneath the shield, on which are the initials C.R., the figure of a wild man in chains proper. Round the rim an ornamental border. The reverse is undecorated.   

 

This service is one of a number made for the family of Robertson of Struan (which family bore on a compartment beneath their arms a wild man in chains commemorating the capture of the murderer of King James I of Scotland in 1437 by the 4th Chief of the Clan. Four earlier services are illustrated in this volume (F4, V8, V14 and V17) which give detail of the family in the second half of the 18th Century, but although there is more than one Charles Robertson in earlier generations, and younger sons are mentioned in published records, there is no obvious owner of this service. The border design is, however, exactly as the Hon. East India Company service (Volume I, W12) which was delivered to the Governors of all the principal East India Stations in India at this time, and it would seem quite possible that the service was carried by Captain Thomas Robertson who commanded East Indiamen at Canton in 1797, 1800 and 1802 (although his crest is not recorded. (Howard 2003, p.656)

 

For a small cup/mug from the same service, please see:

The Robertsons claim to be descended from Crinan, Lord of Atholl, from whom sprang the royal house of Duncan I, the King of the Scots. The Robertson clan is more properly called ‘Clan Donnachaidh’ from their ancestor Duncan, who was a staunch supporter of Robert the Bruce, and who led the Clan at the Battle of Bannockburn.

The general surname of the clan Robertson was taken from Robert Riach (Grizzled Robert) the clan chief, who was known for his intense loyalty to the Stewarts. Riach was responsible for capturing the murderers of King James I, and was rewarded by the crown for this act by having his lands at Struan erected into a Barony.

 

Robert Riach

 

Robert Riach (source: www.scotclans.com)

 

The clan was also granted a symbolic memorial by additions to their coat of arms – subsequently the chief of clan Robertson bore as his crest a hand holding an imperial royal crown, and underneath a man in chains, representing the regicide. About a century later, the Robertson family lost the lands of Struan to the Earl of Atholl but the family regained them in 1606.

However in the seventeenth century, after the final defeat of James VII, all Robertson estates were forfeited and the chief of the Robertson clan joined the exiled court in France. To this day the chiefs of the clan Robertson still have the right and privilege of interment in the family burial ground at Struan. (source: www.scotclans.com)

 

For more information on the Clan Robertson (Clan Donnachaidh), please click here.

 

Condition: Three hairlines to the rim.

 

References:

Howard 2003, W12 Robertson

www.scotclans.com

www.donnachaidh.com

 

Price: € 499 - $ 617 - £ 435

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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