Pater Gratia Oriental Art

Japanese Porcelain

 

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century

 

Dishes

 

Page 1

The knowledge and expertise required to make porcelain was already present in Japan as far back as the early 17th century. According to legend a Korean potter discovered clay suitable for making porcelain near Arita on the island of Kyushu in the south of Japan in around 1605. Porcelain made from this clay, called shoki-Imari, was intended for the foreign market and soon acquired a surprisingly characteristic Japanese style of decoration, first with a blue underglaze decoration and later in enamel colours. The experience of the manufacturers with enamel colours turned out to be of great importance later. (source: Groninger Museum, Groningen) 

 

When Japanese potters started to make porcelain. It was inspired by underglaze blue porcelain manufactured in kilns of Southern China. By the mid-17th century, Chinese porcelain went into decline due to social unrest and accompanying dynastic change. Dutch merchants, from their base on the small island of Deshima, near Nagasaki, were permitted to trade with Japan. Responding to European demand, the Dutch encouraged the fledgling Japanese porcelain industry to fill the gap left by China.

 

The porcelain the Dutch brought to Europe in the 17th century was in most cases consciously designed to cater to western tastes. To ensure that they would find a ready market, the Dutch often made wooden or earthenware models of designs and sent those to Japan to be copied. 

 

Flasks, ewers and large dishes are examples for shapes made for the Dutch. They are painted in underglaze blue or a palette of enamels dominated by red, green and blue with flowers, figures and landscapes which would not follow traditional Japanese aesthetics. Vessels with landscape designs are often inspired by 17th century Chinese Transitional style. Plates decorated with designs organized by panels imitate the successful blue-and-white Chinese Kraak ware. To make these export wares even more attractive for the Dutch clients numbers of early Japanese export wares are painted with a stylized tulip, referring to the tulipomania, the great Dutch craze of the 1630s. (source: Keramiek Museum Princessehof, Leeuwarden)

2012051
2012051

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2012051

 

Large dish

 

Japan, Arita presumably Sarugawa

 

1670-1690

 

Provenance: Collection Clevering, Den Andel.

 

Height 99 mm (3.90 inch), diameter of rim 548 mm (21.57 inch), diameter of footring 137 mm (5.39 inch), weight ~ 7,800 grams (275.14 ounce (oz.))

 

Published: Oosterse keramiek uit Groninger kollekties,exhibition catalogue Groninger Museum, (C.J.A. Jörg, Martinipers/Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen 1982). p.74, cat. 110.

 

Exhibited: Oosterse keramiek uit Groninger kollekties, (exhibition catalogue Groninger Museum), Groningen, 17 december 1982 - 30 januari 1983.

  

Large dish on footring, flat rim. On the base twelve spur-marks. Fitted in a custom-made steel frame. Decorated in underglaze blue with two birds perched on a rock surrounded by various flowering plants observing two other birds in flight. On the sides large panels filled with flowering plants alternating with small panels filled with knotted tassels between a scale pattern ground. On the reverse two stylised peach sprays, a rectangular paper collectors label with the handwritten number: '354' and an old rectangular paper label with the printed text: 'Schoorsteen geveegd door AUG. DELEA - LEEUWARDEN Tel. 8552 - Giro 483138 Eewal 44 hoek Gr. Hoogstr.' 

  

The decoration was copied from Chinese kraak porcelain. This style is characteristic of early Japanese export porcelain made for the Dutch East India Company, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC) to replace the well-known Chinese kraak and Transitional wares. Polychrome versions were made as well. (Jörg 2003/1, p.27)

 

In October 2016 auction house Omnia Kolham sold an important and interesting collection of Chinese and Japanse export porcelain. It concerned the collection Clevering from Den Andel, a collection mainly formed before the second World War and since then occassionally further expanded.

It was a typical 'Groninger' collection with blue-and-white and coloured export porcelain similar to that shipped to the Netherlands in the 17th and 18th centuries by the Dutch East India Company, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC). 'Groninger' collectors were traditionally more fond of porcelain decorated in enamel colours than on blue-and-white and that preference was also clear in this collection.

Up for auction came a wide range of Chinese, but also Japanese porcelain for the Dutch market. In addition to the ornamental function - even now one can see on the 'Groninger Hogeland' plates and saucers as wall decorations - much of this China is still being used today on special occasions.

An important aspect of such an 'old' collection is the fact that it was collected at a time when export porcelain was not yet being copied. The authenticity of the pieces was thereby guaranteed.

Such comprehensive, classical-wide collections are rare. This collection was a great example of a 'Groninger' tradition of collecting oriental porcelain and how this porcelain was once part of the interior decoration of the 'Groninger' establishment during of the former century.

 

In 1982 the Groninger Museum organised the exhibition 'Oosterse keramiek uit Groninger kollekties'. Some of the exhibited objects, chosen by Jörg, came from the 'old' Clevering collection. This dish was one of the chosen objects and was published in the exhibitions complimentary catalogue as catalogue number 110. 

 

Oosterse keramiek in Groninger kollekties, CJA Jörg   

 

Oosterse keramiek in Groninger kollekties, CJA Jörg, cat 110 afbeelding  

Oosterse keramiek in Groninger kollekties, CJA Jörg, cat 110 ned tekst

 

Oosterse keramiek in Groninger kollekties, CJA Jörg, cat 110 english text

 

Reproduced from, Oosterse keramiek uit Groninger kollekties,exhibition catalogue Groninger Museum, (C.J.A. Jörg, Martinipers/Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen 1982). p.81, cat. 122 (copyright in bibliographic data and cover images is held by the publisher or by their respective licensors: all rights reserved)

 

Condition: A hairline to the rim.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 10

London 1997, cat. 14

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 6

 

Price: € 3.500 - $ 4,148 - £ 3,099

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011805
2011805

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2011805

 

Dish

 

Japan, Arita presumably Sarugawa

 

1670-1690

 

Height 52 mm (2.05 inch), diameter of rim 315 mm (12.40 inch), diameter of footring 150 mm (5.91 inch), weight 1,135 grams (40.04 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. On the base five spur-marks in a X-pattern. Decorated in underglaze blue with a flower vase on a terrace. On the sides and rim narrow panels filled with tassels in between a diaper or scale pattern. The large panels are filled with flowering plants or Artemisia leaves. The reverse is undecorated.

 

The decoration was copied from Chinese kraak porcelain, although, as usual, it is simplified on such imitations. This style is characteristic of early Japanese export porcelain made for the VOC to replace the well-known Chinese kraak and Transitional wares. Polychrome versions were made as well. (Jörg 2003/1, p.27)

 

Condition: Perfect.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 10

London 1997, cat. 14

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 6

 

Price: € 799 - $ 890 - £ 721

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011452
2011452

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2011452

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1660-1680

 

Height: 28 mm (1.10 inch), diameter of rim 200 mm (7.87 inch), diameter of footring 110 mm (4.33 inch), weight 302 grams (10.65 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. On the base four spur-marks in a Y-pattern and some adhering kiln grit to the footring. Decorated in underglaze blue with a flower basket on a table on a fenced terrace filled with a flowering peony plant in a circular cartouche. The sides and rim in Chinese Kraak-style with eight large panels containing peach and auspicious symbols and eight narrow panels filled with a scale pattern and dots. The reverse is undecorated.  

 

The decoration was copied from Chinese kraak porcelain, although, as usual, it is simplified on such imitations. This style is characteristic of early Japanese export porcelain made for the VOC to replace the well-known Chinese kraak and Transitional wares. Polychrome versions were made as well. (Jörg 2003/1, p.27)

 

For similarly decorated dishes, please see:

Condition: Perfect.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 10

London 1997, cat. 14

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 6

 

Price: € 349 - $ 388 - £ 351

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011790
2011790

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2011790

 

Large dish

 

Japan, Arita presumably Sarugawa

 

1670-1690

 

Height 86 mm (3.39 inch), diameter of rim 438 mm (17.24 inch), diameter of footring 215 mm (8.46 inch)

 

Large dish on footring, wide flat rim. On the base nine spur-marks. Decorated in underglaze blue in a Chinese kraak style with in the centre a decoration of two branches with fruit, one with pomegranates and one with finger-lemon fruit also called 'Buddha's-hand citron'. On the sides and rim large panels filled with stylised peonies and precious objects alternating with narrower panels filled with florets. The reverse is undecorated.

 

The pomegranate and Buddha's Hand citron symbolically represent fertility and happiness, together with the peach (longevity) they are being named 'The three Abundances'. (Arts 1983, p.140)

 

Fingered citron or Buddha's hand (image courtesy of S. Fan)

 

Although the border division copies kraak porcelain, the decoration of the two large branches filling the centre seems to be based on Chinese prototypes of the later Transitional-early Kangxi period. The Japanese potter combined two styles to create a hybrid, fashionable Japanese novelty. Dishes and plates of this design which were apparently popular, were made in different sizes. (Jörg 2003/1, p.28

 

For identically decorated dishes please see;

Condition: A firing flaw to the base and a fleabite and frit to the footring.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 8

Woodward 1974, cat. 26(b)

Jenyns 1979, cat. 16a

Arts 1983, p.140

Hartog 1990, cat. 153

Suchomel 1997, cat. 25

Jörg 1999, cat. 27

Impey 2002, cat. 128

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 8

Kyushu 2003, cat. 2595

 

Price: € 1.499 - $ 1,669 - £ 1,354

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2010231
2010231

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2010231

 

Dish

 

Japan, Arita presumably Sarugawa

 

1670-1690

 

Height 38 mm (1.50 inch), diameter of rim 215 mm (8.47 inch), diameter of footring 116 mm (4.57 inch), weight 432 grams (15.24 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. On the base a single spur-mark. Decorated in underglaze blue in the style of Chinese kraak porcelain.  In the centre a decoration of two branches with fruit, one with pomegranates and one with finger-lemon fruit also called 'Buddha's-Hand citron'. The sides divided into panels filled with stylised peonies and precious objects alternating with narrower panels of florets. The reverse is undecorated.

 

The pomegranate and Buddha's Hand citron symbolically represent fertility and happiness, together with the peach (longevity) they are being named 'The three Abundances'. (Arts 1983, p.140)

 

Although the border division copies kraak porcelain, the decoration of the two large branches filling the centre seems to be based on Chinese prototypes of the later Transitional-early Kangxi period. The Japanese potter combined two styles to create a hybrid, fashionable Japanese novelty. Dishes and plates of this design which were apparently popular, were made in different sizes. (Jörg 2003/1, p.28

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see:

Condition: Overall fine crazing to the glaze, a firing flaw and a chip to the rim.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 8

Woodward 1974, cat. 26(b)

Jenyns 1979, cat. 16a

Arts 1983, p.140

Hartog 1990, cat. 153

Suchomel 1997, cat. 25

Jörg 1999, cat. 27

Impey 2002, cat. 128

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 8

Kyushu 2003, cat. 2595

 

Price: € 299 - $ 333 - £ 270

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2010437
2010437

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2010437

 

Dish

 

Japan, Arita presumably Sarugawa

 

1670-1690

 

Height 35 mm (1.38 inch), diameter of rim 240 mm (9.45 inch), diameter of footring 123 mm (4.84 inch), weight 678 grams (23.92 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. On the base a single spur-mark. Decorated in underglaze blue in the style of Chinese kraak porcelain. In the centre a decoration of two branches with fruit, one with pomegranates and one with finger-lemon fruit also called 'Buddha's-Hand citron'. The sides divided into panels filled with stylised peonies and precious objects alternating with narrower panels of florets. The reverse is undecorated.

 

The pomegranate and Buddha's Hand citron symbolically represent fertility and happiness, together with the peach (longevity) they are being named 'The three Abundances'. (Arts 1983, p.140)

 

Although the border division copies kraak porcelain, the decoration of the two large branches filling the centre seems to be based on Chinese prototypes of the later Transitional-early Kangxi period. The Japanese potter combined two styles to create a hybrid, fashionable Japanese novelty. Dishes and plates of this design which were apparently popular, were made in different sizes. (Jörg 2003/1, p.28

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see:

Condition: A fleabite to the rim.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 8

Woodward 1974, cat. 26(b)

Jenyns 1979, cat. 16a

Arts 1983, p.140

Hartog 1990, cat. 153

Suchomel 1997, cat. 25

Jörg 1999, cat. 27

Impey 2002, cat. 128

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 8

Kyushu 2003, cat. 2595

 

Price: € 299 - $ 333 - £ 270

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2010522
2010522

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2010522

 

Dish

 

Japan, Arita presumably Sarugawa

 

1670-1690

 

Height 30 mm (1.18 inch), diameter of rim 220 mm (8.66 inch), diameter of footring 119 mm (4.69 inch), weight 318 grams (11.22 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. On the base four spur-marks in a Y-pattern. Decorated in underglaze blue. The central design shows a river scene with a farmer leading two cows over a bridge surrounded by a scroll-border, characteristic of Chinese Transitional ware. The border design shows wide and narrow panels filled with Artemisia leaves and flowering stems. The reverse is divided into panels and sketchily painted.

 

The was design influenced by the decoration on Chinese T'ien-ch'i porcelain, which was exported to Japan. In 'Imari-Porzellan am Hofe der Kaiserin Maria Theresia' it is stated that the figure on the dish is most likely to be Tai Gongwang (Jiang Ziya), a politician at the beginning of the Zhou-period (11th cent. - 221 BCE). He was spotted when fishing in the river Weisui by the ruler Wen Wang, Tai Gongwang later became his teacher, he also served Wen Wang’s son Wu Wang the first emperor of the Zhou dynasty (r.1122-1115 BC). According to this legend a decoration of a man fishing is most likely to be Tai Gongwang. On this dish the Japanese artist used a theme that Chinese export wares in the early 17th century used. Jörg states that this is the best known type of Japanese porcelain imitating a specific Chinese group of dishes with a kraak body and a panelled border, but a Transitional decoration dating to 1635-1645. Japanese dishes of this design are not rare and were made in different sizes. A large example measuring 520 mm (20.47 inch), is in the Topkapi Saray Museum, Istanbul. (Düsseldorf 2000, p.45), (Jörg 2003/1, pp.28-29)

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see;

Condition: Perfect.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 26

Arts 1983, Plate 12

Harrisson 1985, cat. 88

Suchomel 1997, cat. 21

Düsseldorf 2000, cat. 6

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 9

Jörg 2011/1, cat. 47

 

Price: € 499 - $ 555- £ 450

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2012161
2012161

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2012161

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1660-1690

 

Height 33 mm (1.30 inch), diameter of rim 216 mm (8.50 inch), diameter of footring 109 mm (4.29 inch), weight 413 grams (14.57 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. Four spur-marks in a Y-pattern on the base. Decorated in underglaze blue with two Hoo-o birds, one perched on pierced rockwork amongst fruiting peach and camellia, the other in flight above. The sides and rim in kraak style with six wide panels (fuyõ-de) filled with bamboo, peony and prunus, separated from each other by narrow panels filled with scrolls in blue on blue. The reverse is undecorated.

 

Dishes with this border design are also known with the VOC initials. They were probably ordered by the High Government from 1668 when it started to require porcelain for Batavia. An armorial decorated dish dated c.1667 has a similar border design and dates the style of the border. (Jörg 2003/1, pp.225-226 & p.230), (Antonin & Suebsman 2009, pp.224-225

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see:

For other dishes with the same central design but with other sides and rim decorations, please see:

Condition: Some fine crazing to the glaze and a firing flaw to the glaze in the centre.

 

References:

Amsterdam 1972, cat. nr 3

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 19

Woodward 1974, cat. 84, 86 & 87

Daendels 1981, cat. 25

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 285, 286 & 291

Kyushu 2003, cat. 2495

Antonin & Suebsman 2009, cat. 91

 

Price: € 249 - $ 308 - £ 215

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011249
2011249

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2011249

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1660-1690

 

Height 53 mm (2.09 inch), diameter of rim 312 mm (12.28 inch), diameter of footring 151 mm (5.95 inch), weight 1.184 grams (41.76 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. Four spur-marks in a Y-pattern on the base. Decorated in underglaze blue with two Hoo-o birds, one perched on pierced rockwork amongst fruiting peach and camellia, the other in flight above. The sides and rim in kraak style with six wide panels (fuyõ-de) filled with bamboo, peony and prunus, separated from each other by narrow panels filled with scrolls in blue on blue. The reverse is undecorated.

 

Dishes with this border design are also known with the VOC initials. They were probably ordered by the High Government from 1668 when it started to require porcelain for Batavia. An armorial decorated dish dated c.1667 has a similar border design and dates the style of the border. (Jörg 2003/1, pp.225-226 & p.230), (Antonin & Suebsman 2009, pp.224-225

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see:

For other dishes with the same central design but with other sides and rim decorations, please see:

Condition: A professionally restored chip to the reverse rim.

 

References:

Amsterdam 1972, cat. nr 3

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 19

Woodward 1974, cat. 84, 86 & 87

Daendels 1981, cat. 25

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 285, 286 & 291

Kyushu 2003, cat. 2495

Antonin & Suebsman 2009, cat. 91

 

Price: € 499 - $ 555 - £ 450

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2010C291
2010C291

JJapanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2010C291

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1660-1690

 

Height 62 mm (2.44 inch), diameter of rim 325 mm (12.80 inch), diameter of footring 160 mm (6.30 inch), weight 1.278 grams (45.08 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring with a flattened rim and a glazed base. Decorated in underglaze blue with two Hoo-o birds, one perched on pierced rockwork amongst fruiting peach and camellia, the other in flight above. The sides and rim in kraak style with six wide panels (fuyõ-de) filled with bamboo, peony and prunus, separated from each other by narrow panels filled with scrolls in blue on blue. The reverse is undecorated.

 

Dishes with this border design are also known with the VOC initials. They were probably ordered by the High Government from 1668 when it started to require porcelain for Batavia. An armorial decorated dish dated c.1667 has a similar border design and dates the style of the border. (Jörg 2003/1, pp.225-226 & p.230), (Antonin & Suebsman 2009, pp.224-225

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see:

For other dishes with the same central design but with other sides and rim decorations, please see:

Condition: Overall fine crazing to the glaze and some firing flaws to the glaze in the centre.

 

References:

Amsterdam 1972, cat. nr 3

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 19

Woodward 1974, cat. 84, 86 & 87

Daendels 1981, cat. 25

Jörg 2003/1, cat. 285, 286 & 291

Kyushu 2003, cat. 2495

Antonin & Suebsman 2009, cat. 91

 

Price: € 599 - $ 654 - £ 457

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011255
2011255

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2011255

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1660-1690

 

Height 32 mm (1.26 inch), diameter of rim 213 mm (8.39 inch), diameter of footring 108 mm (4.25 inch), weight 407 grams (14.36 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. On the base two spur-marks. Decorated in underglaze blue with a flower basket on a fenced terrace filled with a flowering peony plant in a circular cartouche. The sides and rim in kraak style with six wide panels (fuyõ-de) filled with bamboo, peony and prunus, separated from each other by narrow panels filled with scrolls in blue on blue. The reverse is undecorated with some adhering kiln-grit to the base.

 

Dishes with this border design are also known with the VOC initials. They were probably ordered by the High Government from 1668 when it started to require porcelain for Batavia. An armorial decorated dish dated c.1667 has a similar border design and dates the style of the border. (Jörg 2003/1, pp.225-226 & p.230), (Antonin & Suebsman 2009, pp.224-225

 

For identically decorated dishes, please see;

Condition: Perfect.

 

References:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, cat. 22

Woodward 1974, cat. 85

Suchomel 1997, cat. 15

Jörg 2003/1, cat 285, 286 & 291

Antonin & Suebsman 2009, cat. 91

 

Price: € 399 - $ 444 - £ 360

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

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2011910
2011910

Japanese Blue and White wares 17th Century - Dishes - Page 1

 

Object 2011910

 

Dish

 

Japan

 

1660-1690

 

Height 68 mm (2.68 inch), diameter of rim 408 mm (16.06 inch), diameter of footring 201 mm (7.91 inch), weight 2,365 grams (83.42 ounce (oz.))

 

Dish on footring, flat rim. Five spur-marks in a X-pattern on the base. Decorated in underglaze blue with birds and a flowering plant growing from rockwork in a circular cartouche. The sides and rim in Chinese kraak style with six equal wide panels (fuyõ-de) outlined with two lines each filled with flowering plants and two birds. The reverse is undecorated.

 

This type of border with six equal panels generally containing plants is best known from the plates with the East India Company monogram in a landscape adapted to incorporate. Sometimes these equal panels are outlined with two lines as on K'ang Hsi porcelain. (Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, p.50)

 

For an identically decorated dish, please see;

Condition: Firing flaws to the base and rim and a hairline to the rim.

 

Reference:

Lunsingh Scheurleer 1971, p. 50 & cat. 24

Kyushu 1990/1, cat. 62 & cat. 63 

 

Price: € 999 - $ 1,112 - £ 902

(the $ and £ prices are approximates and depend on the € price exchange rate)

 

Previously sold as object 2011603.

 

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