Pater Gratia Oriental Art

Sold Ceramics

 

Sold Encre de Chine 1725-1775

 

Page 1

The use of black enamel in imitation of drawings or prints was first developed at the end of the reign of the Kangxi emperor (1662-1722) and the Yongzheng reign (1723-1730). Chinese porcelains decorated in ink colour became popular in Europe around 1740, and until about 1790 continental clients continued to order them, especially for armorials, because the ink-colour process so readily duplicated the engraved bookplates supplied to the decorators as source materials. The technique may have been developed first for use on glass in the 1660s in Germany, where it was called schwarzlot. Eighteenth-century shipping records sometimes may have referenced it as pencilled ware because it was executed with a thin brush called a pencil.  Albert Jacquemart dubbel it encre-de-Chine. Another name Jesuit ware was used still later due in part to the many examples of ceramics with religious motifs that incorporated this technique. En grisaille, another popular term used to refer to this technique, is inappropriate as it refers to works in various media in shades of gray and brown, and it does not convey the quality or technique evident in them. The Dutch terms were zwart geemailleerd or zwart goed (black-eneameled or black goods), and the state inventory of Johannes van Bergen van der Gijp (1713-1784) lists his porcelain as swarte kunst (black art). Works incorporating the reddish enamel known in China as zhucai (yellowish-red colour-or sepia often are grouped with ink-colour wares as well. (Sargent 2012, pp.333-334)

In 1722 Père d'Entrecolles reported that the Chinese were experimenting with painting in black, so far unsuccessfully. Black or schwarzlot, decoration, was also then just being developed in Europe, and in fact the German Hausmaler was putting it primarily on Chinese imported in the white, rather than on wares from the newly established Meissen factory. It must have been these hybrids that were sent back to Canton for imitation at the time of Père d'Entrecolle's letter, but the perfection of the technique and its translation into commercial export porcelain came only later, under the direct influence of the Du Paquier period (1719-1744). Unique to the Viennese Du Paquier factory was the laub- und bandelwerk border, based on two series of engravings by Paul Decker (d.1713). Continually modified and varied its essential elements were strapwork, palmettes, trelliswork cartouches, and foliate scrolls combined into a rhythmical pattern of baroque formality. Other China trade versions of the laub- und bandelwerk border, such as the more usual one with the addition of peacock and with panels of quilting rather than trellis- or scale work, are farther removed from their Viennese factory prototypes, and are perhaps derived from Hausmaler variants. (Corbeiller 1974, pp.68-69)

2012135
2012135

Sold Ceramics - Sold Encre de Chine 1725-1775 - Page 1

 

Object 2012135

 

Saucer

 

China

 

c.1730

 

Height 20 mm (0.79 inch), diameter of rim 116 mm (4.57 inch), diameter of footring 65 mm (2.56 inch), weight 53 grams (1.87 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, slightly everted rim. Decorated in overglaze iron-red, gold and black enamel with a boy riding on the back of a water buffalo in a mountainous landscape with rocks and a tree. In one hand the boy is holding his hat and a stick while his other hand is reaching out with a bird perched on his fingers looking at another bird in flight. Round the rim a diaper-pattern ground with three reserves filled leafy flower heads. The reverse is undecorated.

 

The use of black enamel in imitation of drawings or prints was first developed at the end of the reign of the Kangxi emperor (1662-1722) and the Yongzheng reign (1723-1730). Chinese porcelains decorated in ink colour became popular in Europe around 1740, and until about 1790 continental clients continued to order them, especially for armorials, because the ink-colour process so readily duplicated the engraved bookplates supplied to the decorators as source materials. The technique may have been developed first for use on glass in the 1660s in Germany, where it was called schwarzlot. Eighteenth-century shipping records sometimes may have referenced it as pencilled ware because it was executed with a thin brush called a pencil.  Albert Jacquemart dubbel it encre-de-Chine. Another name Jesuit ware was used still later due in part to the many examples of ceramics with religious motifs that incorporated this technique. En grisaille, another popular term used to refer to this technique, is inappropriate as it refers to works in various media in shades of gray and brown, and it does not convey the quality or technique evident in them. The Dutch terms were zwart geemailleerd or zwart goed (black-eneameled or black goods), and the state inventory of Johannes van Bergen van der Gijp (1713-1784) lists his porcelain as swarte kunst (black art). Works incorporating the reddish enamel known in China as zhucai (yellowish-red colour-or sepia often are grouped with ink-colour wares as well. (Sargent 2012, pp.333-334)

 

For similarly decorated objects, please see:

Condition: Perfect.

 

Reference:

Sargent 2012, pp.333-334

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011819
2011819

Sold Ceramics - Sold Encre de Chine 1725-1775 - Page 1

 

Object 2011819

 

Bowl

 

China

 

c.1730

 

Height 56 mm (2.20 inch), diameter of rim 118 mm (4.65 inch), diameter of footring 55 mm (2.17 inch), weight 107 grams (3.77 ounce (oz.))

 

Published: Fraeylema Nieuws, number 52, September 2015

 

Bowl on footring, spreading sides and upturned rim. Decorated in various enamels and encre de Chine with two flower sprays and beetles and butterflies. Around the rim a diaper-pattern border. On the bottom an orchid (Cymbidium virescens) (only visible in ghost form).

 

On this bowl the Chinese porcelain painter's interest in insects, evident from the Wanli period onwards, is combined with encre de Chine which allowed finely and detailed painting. The encre de Chine decorating style was used not only for reproducing European prints, but also for decorations in the Chinese style as applied here on this bowl. (Jörg & Van Campen 1997, p.169, cat. 186 & p.221, cat. 251)

 

The orchid (Cymbidium virescens), the Lan Hua. is a motif commonly seen on fine Chinese export porcelain of around 1740.

 

Condition: Wear to the blue enamel. a very tiny glaze hairline (3 mm (0.12 inch) to the rim only visible on the inside and a hairline to the base.

 

References:

Jörg & Van Campen 1997, cat. 186 & 251

Fraeylema Nieuws, number 52, September 2015

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2011706
2011706

Sold Ceramics - Sold Encre de Chine 1725-1775 - Page 1

 

Object 2011706

 

Saucer

 

China

 

1730-1735

 

Height 16 mm (0.63 inch), diameter of rim 114 mm (4.49 inch), diameter of footring 64 mm (2.52 inch), weight 47 grams (1.66 ounce (oz.))

 

Saucer on footring, slightly everted rim. Decorated in encre de Chine with gold, iron-red and a light pinkish gold wash with a river scape with trees, mountains, pagodas and various figures in a fortress within walls, in boats, on bridges and on horseback. The reverse is undecorated.

 

Condition: A fleabite and a frit to the inner footring.

 

Price: Sold.

 

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2010687
2010687

Sold Ceramics - Sold Encre de Chine 1725-1775 - Page 1

 

Object 2010687

 

Saucer

 

China

 

1730-1735

 

Height 16 mm (0.63 inch), diameter of rim 91 mm (3.58 inch), diameter of footring 52 mm (2.05 inch)

 

Saucer on footring, slightly everted rim. Decorated in encre de Chine with gold, iron-red and a light pinkish gold wash with a man reaching out towards a woman holding a stem in a landscape. The reverse is undecorated.

 

Condition: Perfect.

 

Price: Sold.

 

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More pictures of object 2010688, another identically shaped, sized and decorated, sold saucer >>

2010897
2010897

Sold Ceramics - Sold Encre de Chine 1725-1775 - Page 1

 

Object 2010897

 

Milk jug

 

China

 

1750-1770

 

Height 86 mm (3.38 inch), diameter 69 mm (2.72 inch), diameter of mouthrim 35 mm (1.38 inch), diameter of footring 38 mm (1.50 inch)

 

Milk jug on a footring, pear shaped body with handle, small triangular spout at the rim. The cover is missing. The handle is placed opposite the spout. Decorated in encre de Chine with gold with a "stag hunting scene". On the rim a swastika pattern border and four reserves filled with flowering scrolls.

 

Condition: A hairline to the rim.

 

Reference:

Corbeiller 1974, cat. 30

 

Price: Sold.

 

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More pictures of object 2010898, another identically decorated, sold coffee cup >>

More pictures of object 2010875, another identically decorated, sold spoon or leak tray >>