Japanese wares with Western Shapes or Designs 1653-1800
Objects 2012243 & 2012244
Two coffee pots
Height with cover 295 mm (11.61 inch), height without cover 265 mm (10.43 inch), diameter handle to spout 225 mm (8.86 inch), diameter of mouthrim 76 mm (2.99 inch), diameter of footring 145 mm (5.71 inch), weight with cover 1,827 grams (64.45 ounce (oz.)), weight cover 68 grams (2.40 ounce (oz.))
Height with cover 295 mm (11.61 inch), height without cover 261 mm (10.28 inch), diameter handle to spout 225 mm (8.86 inch), diameter of mouthrim 78 mm (3.07 inch), diameter of footring 150 mm (5.91 inch), weight with cover 1,643 grams (57.96 ounce (oz.)), weight cover 85 grams (3.00 ounce (oz.))
Two coffee pots of conical shape on footrings with glazed bases. Curved, flat pieced handles, domed covers with pointed knobs and loop rings (intended for chains between the top of the handles and the loop rings on the covers). The holes for the mounted Dutch brass taps in the lower parts are surrounded by squares in low relief. Decorated in underglaze blue with two large phoenixes or pheasants perched on rocks, flowering peonies and chrysanthemums. On the handle karakusa scrolls. The covers are decorated en suite.
As was the case with tea, it was not until the end of the 17th century that drinking coffee became popular in Europe, each town had his own coffee house, where everyone - which in fact meant mainly men - could enjoy drinking a cup of coffee. The Dutch East India Company, (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC), started off mainly importing coffee from Yemen, experimenting only later with plantations of their own in Java.
However, drinking coffee had for centuries already been a common practice in the Middle East. European coffee pots were therefore often modelled after Islamic copper examples. Two types of coffee pots were most frequently commissioned in Asian porcelain: conical and belly shaped. The conical shaped pot originally came from Japan. After brewed coffee was poured into this luxurious porcelain pot, it was held warm on a stand and subsequently served through a metal tap which had later been added to the pot after it had been imported to the Netherlands. At the bottom of the pot the coffee grounds were collected. Coffee pots from China, where both types were made, don't feature a tap but a spout. (The World at Home, exhibition Groninger Museum 17 june 2017 - 31 march 2019)
The utensils necessary for consuming tea and coffee developed in parallel with their increasing popularity. Dutch Copper coffee pots of conical shape are known in the late 17th centurY, and there were also silver examples. A double-walled copper coffee pot probably made for the the Netherlands Dutch confirms its use. The Arita porcelain copies will have been made from a similar model. Some have three feet, other none. The feet eliminate the disadvantage of an uneven base: pots without feet were apparently put on a brazier or stand (added in Europe), or were mounted. The loop ring had a silver chain fixed to the hole in the handle to prevent the cover from falling off. An octagonal variety with spout is known in Chine de commande., but otherwise the shape is not represented in Chinese export porcelain. This underglaze blue version is quite common, indicating a widespread use of these Japanese pots. (Jörg 2003/1, p. 204, cat. 261)
Coffee pots, usually three-legged, are common in blue-and-white and in enamelled Imari. usually there is one hole left for a tap to be fitted in Europe, occasionally there are three. (Ayers, Impey & Mallet 1990, p.213)
For identically shaped, sized and decorated coffee pots, please see;
- Japans porselein met blauwe decoraties uit de tweede helft van de zeventiende en de eerste helft van de achttiende eeuw. (D.F. Lunsingh Scheurleer in Mededelingenblad Nederlandse Vereniging van Vrienden van de Ceramiek, vols. 64/65, 1971), p.89, cat. 113 & cat. 114.
- Chinesisches und japanisches Porzellan in europäischen Fassungen, (D.F. Lunsingh Scheurleer, Verlag Klinkhardt & Biermann, Braunschweig,1980), p.398, Abb. 429a.
- Eastern Ceramics and other works of art from the collection of Gerald Reitlinger, (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford 1981), p.94, cat 262.
- Japanese Export Porcelain. Catalogue of the Collection of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, (O. Impey, Hotei Publishing, Amsterdam, 2002), p.106, cat. 121.
For identically shaped, sized and decorated coffee pots on three feet, please see;
- Chinesisches und japanisches Porzellan in europäischen Fassungen, (D.F. Lunsingh Scheurleer, Verlag Klinkhardt & Biermann, Braunschweig,1980), p.399, Abb. 430 & 432.
- H.A. Daendels, Catalogus tentoonstelling Japans blauw wit Porselein. Op Hollandse bestelling en in de Japanse smaak, exhibition catalogue Gemeentelijk Museum Het Princessehof, Leeuwarden 1981. Also Published as Mededelingenblad Nederlandse Vereniging van Vrienden van de Ceramiek, vols. 101/102, p.33, cat. 15.
- Fine & Curious: Japanese Export Porcelain in Dutch Collections, (C.J.A. Jörg, Hotei Publishing, Amsterdam, 2003), p.204, cat. 261.
- Austrumu porcellans un Niderlande. Austrumu un Rietumu mijiedarbiba 17. gadsimta / Oriental Porcelain and the Netherlands. Interaction between East and West in the 17th century, (C.J.A. Jörg, Art Museum Riga Bourse, Riga, 2011), pp.226-227, cat. 79.
For an identically shaped, sized and decorated coffee pot with Danish silver mounts that bears the monogram of King Frederick IV of Denmark (r.1699-1730) and the Holstein coat of arms on tap, in the Princess's lacquered chamber at Rosenborg Castle, Copenhagen. (Impey 2002, p. 106) to see this coffee pot, please see:
- Japanese Porcelain, (S. Jenyns, Faber & Faber, London / Boston, 1979), cat. 18a.
- Chinesisches und japanisches Porzellan in europäischen Fassungen, (D.F. Lunsingh Scheurleer, Verlag Klinkhardt & Biermann, Braunschweig,1980), p.397, Abb. 427.
For other identically shaped, sized and decorated mounted coffee pots, please see;.
- Chinesisches und japanisches Porzellan in europäischen Fassungen, (D.F. Lunsingh Scheurleer, Verlag Klinkhardt & Biermann, Braunschweig,1980), p.397, Abb. 428.
- Early Japanese Porcelain: Arita Porcelain in the Dresden Collection, (F. Reichel, Londen 1981), cat. 15.
- Mistrovská dĩla Japonského porcelánu / Masterpieces of Japanese Porcelain, (F. Suchomel, Prague 1997), p.71, cat. 11.
Condition object 2012243: A firing flaw to the belly and the handle, a restored loopring to the cover and a shallow chip to the rim.
Condition object 2012244: Some fine crazing to the glaze, a firing flaw to the handle and to glaze rough spots to the square in low relief that fits the Dutch brass tap. The cover is completely restored.